ISSN 1991-2927
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## 'Автоматизация процессов управления / Automation of Control Processes' # 2 (56) 2019

Contents
AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEMS
 I. Egorov, A. Moiseev,
 Models for Creating the Special-Purpose Mathematical Support of Computer-Aided Control Systems Authors provide reasons to a promising outlook for creating a technology for the development of special-purpose mathematical support of the computer-aided control system in order to improve the management based on process automation of content-related information processing and decision-making support. Different special-purpose software components as well as their development stages are analyzed. A block diagram of special-purpose mathematical support creating that includes production volume data at each stage and intensity of its growth and decrease. Linear differential equations build the mathematical models for creating the special-purpose mathematical support. Analytical decisions have been made, curves demonstrating the production volume change at all stages are provided. For mathematical modelling the processes of special-purpose mathematical support creating and decision-making support, authors use the Lotka-Volterra equations that demonstrate the creative behavior of designers’ work. The equations obtained are examined for stability. Authors detect approximate decisions. The models built are designed for optimal source distribution among development stages of all the special-purpose software types.Special-purpose mathematical support, design technology, mathematical modelling.

 D. Grigorev, T. Maslennikova, A. Piftankin, A. Polovinkina
 The Mathematical Model of Air Defense Control Process The article deals with problems on shipborne anti-aircraft defense (AAD) system control process. The development of a plan for distribution of shipborne air defense systems through enemy objects is a one of the main stages of this process. The distribution plan represents an assignment array, the element of which includes identifiers for the air object and AAD facilities and is assigned for that air object. The distribution plan is generated with ranking of air objects on a danger level, evaluating the capabilities or efficiency of the AAD facilities assignment to air objects, and generating the plan of AAD facilities distribution through air objects according to the given efficiency criterion. When solving this problem, it arises the necessity of considering not only the actual state of the system but the predicted one. Authors suggest a mathematical model that considers jointly planning processes (problem solving on the predicted state) and control processes (problem solving on the actual state) of AAD facilities. The model takes into account the using of multiplex means and their loading features as well as the dynamics of evolving events.Anti-aircraft defense (AAD), mathematical models, anti-aircraft weapon, distribution plan, assignment criterion.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS
 E. Pavlygin, A. Podloboshnikov, R. Savinov, N. Yarushkina, A. Namestnikov, A. Filippov, A. Romanov, V. Moshkin, G. Guskov, M. Grigoricheva
 Development of a Software Package for Data Mining of Social Media The article presents the results of work on a software package for data mining of social media. The architecture of the software package is described. Listed the main subsystems of the software package and third-party software systems used in the development of a software package. The organization of the data storage subsystem of the software package is considered, the data model of this subsystem is described. The approach to organizing the ontology repository of a software package based on a graph database is described, and the ontology translation method in the OWL / XML format into a graph database fragment is presented. The organization of the data search subsystem is considered, the method of extending the search query using ontology for accounting for the features of the subject area in the search process is described. Also presented is a method of formatting a search query to highlight the important elements of the query to improve the quality of the search. The organization of the social portrait building subsystem of the user of the social network VKontakte is described, the method of determining the categories of interests of the user is considered.Social media, ontological analysis, natural language processing, data mining, software package.

 V. Kliachkin, D. Zhukov
 Algorithm of Diagnostics of Technical Object Operation Using Aggregated Classifiers The paper addresses the issue of prediction of technical object’s state of health using the known indicators of its operation. The basic data are the known results of the object state estimation by information about previous service: the technical system is healthy or faulty with predetermined values of specified indicators. Such problem may be solved using the machine learning methods, it reduces to binary classification of states of the object. The study showed that diagnostics quality may be improved by means of the binary classification method including aggregated approach, as well as by means of selection of the volume of the validation set and the method of selection of relevant indicators of object operation. In the example (used for the algorithm testing), F-measure value, which is the most reliable diagnostics quality measure for unbalanced classes, has increased by 6% (from 0.86 to 0.91), compared with the Support Vector Machine, and by 2%, compared with the bagging of decision trees which is the best basic method for the example considered (F = 0.89). In some cases, this 2% may be of significance from the perspective of the object operation security.Technical diagnostics, healthy state, operation indicators, machine learning, aggregated approach, validation set, cross-validation.

 A. Kravtsov, A. Privalov, M. Rakk
 The Model of Data-Burst Transmitting Process in the Network MPLS-TP in Terms of Computer Attacks at Rare Influx of Data The strategy of scientific and technical development of the ‘Russian Railways’ holding for the period up to 2020 and the prospect till 2025 ‘White book’ envisages the organization of a batch Multiservice Transport Network of railway telecommunication on the basis of Multi-Protocol switching technology on the labels for the transport network-Multiprotocol Label Switching-Transport Profile (MPLS-TP). The authors have developed a mathematical model of the process of transferring data packets in the network MPLS-TP in the conditions of computer attacks at rare influx of data. The probability of the successful cyberattacks on a network element implemented by penetrator as well as a mean time for that are characteristics of cyberattacks. Formulas for calculating mean time, the probability density function as well as the function of transfer time distribution in the n conditions of computer attacks on Multiservice Transport Network MPLS-TP Technology at rare influx of data and at the various values of the probability of penetrator’s accessibility to each network element on the routing of transmitting and recovering of each network-element performance after cyberattacks.Transport communication network, MPLS-TP technology, Method of topological transformation of stochastic networks, calculation of average time of the package delivery, routing, computer attacks, critical information infrastructure, protection of critical information structure.

 S. Ratseev, A. Ivantsov
 On Some Properties of Cryptographic Hash Functions The article deals with hash functions with and without secret key. For the hash functions without a secret key, a condition of uniform distribution of hash functions values with a random equiprobable choice of argument values is one of the additional requirements. The rationale of this requirement is given on the example of a finite set of messages using the concept of the balanced functions. Authors demonstrate that the probability of the fact of nondetection of the message (or file) change does not exceed the reciprocal power value of hash function images. For modern hash functions with length of hash values of 256‒512 bits, it means that such probability is slim to none. The paper is also survey of recent results of investigations on authentication codes resistant to imitation and substitution messages. The case when the probabilities of imitation and substitution reach the lower limits has been highlighted. Such authentication codes are called optimal. We study constructions of optimal authentication codes based on orthogonal tables. The case of optimal authentication codes with optional uniform distribution on the set of keys is studied.Hash function, authentication code, message simulation.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
 N. Maksimov, V. Shirokov, A. Shamanin
 An Approach to the Development of Ontology for Electric-Power Engineering Domain Based on Standards ISO 15926, IEC 61970 The article deals with an approach to the development of ontology in the field of electric power industry using up-to-date international standards. Currently, when designing electrical installations, designers are faced with unreliable information from several sources as well as search complexity and heterogeneity of information. The requirements for the ontology of the subject area in the field of electric power industry are given, and the ISO 15926 and IEC 61970 standards are compared. It is concluded that the classes in the CIM model are complete for the operational stage. Publications on this topic are reviewed. The procedure for constructing an ontology prototype is carried out using the DOT-15926 program in terms of transformer parameters and the ISO 15926 standard methodology. This prototype was used to transfer from the E3.Series design system to the ETAP calculation complex. Data transfer was carried out in a file form with the conversion in the DOT-15926 program.ISO 15926, IEC 61970, CIM, domain ontology, electric power engineering.

 I. Moshkina, E. Egov
 Project State Forecasting on Time Series of Metrics and on Detected Anomalies The article deals with an example of the anomalies detection when analyzing the time series of metrics that characterize the project activity to adjust the project state forecasting. Project activity metrics are analyzed. A forecasting algorithm based on fuzzy tendency of time series metrics is developed and implemented. Authors suggest a procedure for detecting the time series anomaly based on entropy. A formula for computing the entropy measure for a fuzzy time series is proposed. The algorithm allows to take into account the dependence of the predicted values on the entropy measures. For forecasting, a hypothesis is used, which is formed for a given period on the basis of a trend. The results of the application of the proposed approach for forecasting the state of the project "FreeNAS9" are given.Time series, software metrics, entropy, forecasting.

MATHEMATICAL MODELING
 A. Andreev, O. Peregudova
 Robust Motion Stabilization of a Mobile Robot with Omny-Wheels The modelling as well as the design and widespread use of wheeled mobile robots in the industrial and social spheres is one of the areas of rapid development of robotics. A sufficiently large class of such robots consists of wheeled robots with roller-bearing or omni-wheels. A distinctive feature of the design of such wheels consisting in the fact that the rollers are fixed to them according to a certain scheme allows the robot to move in any direction without a prior turn. This achieves high maneuverability compared to other wheeled carriages. The paper investigates the trajectory tracking control problem of a mobile robot with three omni-wheels and with an offset center of mass, i.e. when it is assumed that the center of mass of the robot does not coincide with the geometric center of the platform. Previously, such a problem was not considered. The paper substantiates the control structure that provides tracking of a given trajectory, including taking into account the delay and discreteness of the signal in the feedback. At the same time the control has the property of robustness which consists in the fact that its parameters do not depend directly on the mass-inertial parameters of the system and the tracked trajectory. The controller is constructed only by using the values of the system parameters bounds. The result has been achieved on the basis of the development of direct Lyapunov method in the study of the stability of non-autonomous systems obtained in the previous papers of the authors. The results of numerical modeling of the problem studied are presented.Wheeled mobile robot, robust control, stabilization, trajectory tracking, Lyapunov functional.

 I. Davydov, D. Kozlov, S. Shakhtanov, M. Shibaeva
 Permutation Decoding in the System of Combinations Code Designs in the Evaluation of Biometric Data State-of-the-art telecommunication systems and means of data protection against natural and anthropogenic interference in the form of redundant codes are increasingly used in various applications related to the processing of biometric data. A large volume of publications in this subject area is devoted to codes with a low density of parity checks, polar codes, turbocodes with iterative data transformations that implement the algorithm of "belief propagation". These code constructions provide the required probabilistic characteristics but the procedure of decoding such codes takes long time intervals, which is unacceptable in terms of the duration of the cycle of biometric data management in systems critical to time delays. The paper proposes to use the principle of permutation decoding (PD), which is applied to systematic block codes. This method allows to fully use the corrective capabilities of redundant codes but in the classical interpretation requires cumbersome matrix calculations, which does not allow to use the positive properties of the method for error correction. The complexity of the computational process is excessively high. Therefore, to reduce the negative effect in the PD system, it is proposed to use the cognitive principle of data processing at the channel level, which significantly reduces the complexity of the decoder implementation and ensures the use of PD in the control systems of biometric data of subjects, for example, in the automation of transport security processes. Special attention is paid to the combination of codes in the format of cascade coding. For the first time, a description of such a scheme is given for polar codes and nonbinary Reed-Solomon (RS) codes.Soft symbol solution, permutation decoding, cognitive map decoder, concatenated code.

 M. Samoilenko
 Matrix-Iterative Method of the Blurred Images Restoration A new method of the picture-original restoration from the blurred image is proposed. This method is based on the matrixiterative method developed by the author for solving the simultaneous linear algebraic equations. When implementing the image-restoration method, the author uses a prior information specified. It is assumed that the intensity of minimum background values of this image as well as the point spread function are known. The task of image restoration is resulted in the solution of an underdetermined system of linear algebraic equations. A pseudoinverse technique of its matrix is a known solution of the simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The well-known image restoration method based on this solution is also given. The author compares the image restoration by the use of this well-known method and a new matrix-iterative method based on computer simulating. It is shown that the matrixiterative method provides almost exact restoration under certain conditions. Such condition is a low occupation level of an image being filled up with objects if there is a high occupation level of an image being filled up with background values. The additive noise impact and an expected uncertainty were not considered.Simultaneous linear algebraic equations, matrix-iterative method, image restoration, point spread function, pseudoinverse technique.

 V. Kozhevnikov
 The Method of Mathematical Modeling of Cognitive Digital Automata An approach to solving the problem of mathematical modeling of cognitive digital automata (CDA) is proposed. The task of formalizing the concept of the cognitive nature of the CDA mathematical model comes to the fore. The cognitiveness (cognition) of the mathematical model is determined by the possibility of learning and generating solutions that are not provided for in the learning process. A special feature of CDA is that the description of the neural network (NN) structure is used as a structural circuit of the automata, and the logical function "NOT-AND-OR" is used as the model of the neuron. In the case of the feedbacks formation from the output to the inputs of the neurons, the model of the neuron is a binary trigger with a logical function "NOT-AND-OR" at the input. As a tool for constructing a mathematical model of CDA, a mathematical apparatus of Petri nets (PNs) is proposed: marked graphs, inhibitory PNs and PNs with programmable logic. The mathematical model is builton the basis of the representation of the CDA in the form of the state equation of the PNs from the class of Murat equations (matrix equations) or a system of linear algebraic equations. The task of formalizing the concept of cognitiveness (cognition) is solved as a result of the logic synthesis (learning) of the initial structural circuit of CDA or the formation of the formula (network algorithm) of CDA. At the same time, the possibility of forming a formula (network algorithm) of CDA depends on the critical mass (quality) of training sets and training algorithms. Hence, the task of generating the minimum set of training sets for a given CDA function or experimentally determined function takes on particular importance. Forecasting or generation of solutions, in turn, is performed on the basis of the mathematical model of CDA obtained in the learning process.intellectual control system, cognitive digital automata, artificial intelligence, neural networks, machine learning, cognition, Petri nets, equation of states, mathematical modeling, synthesis, generation, analysis, logic.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRONICS
 D. Evsevichev, M. Samokhvalov
 Automated Selection of Designs for Thin-Film Electroluminescent Displays for Avionics The development of methods and means for testing the applicability of thin-film electroluminescent indicator devices as displays for displaying navigation and technical information in aircraft is carried out. Thin-film electroluminescent displays are used in equipment and systems that require high image quality and reliability as well as a long service life of the devices. The result of the performed work is the ExpAT program, which allows to carry out a computational experiment to test of the applicability of the TFEL indicator devices in aeronautical engineering. The algorithm of the program includes iterative calculations of the indicator parameters at user-defined intervals, comparing them with the specified ones and recording the results. As a result of the computational experiment, variants of structures of thin-film emitting structures that meet the operating conditions of indicators in avionics are shown.Aircraft engineering, electroluminescence, indicator, simulation experiment.

 T. Davydova, A. Kalashnikov
 A Coefficient Method for Calculating the Reliability of Functional Part of Power Supply Pcb The reliability of electronic equipment has been the focus of the attention for many decades. The actuality of that grows along with the miniaturization of electronic components and the density of attachment in electronic equipment. The process of reliability calculation becomes more complex and takes more time in view of the growth of type and amount of applied electronic components. Nonfailure operating probability, failure intensity, and mean time to failure are basic qualitative characteristics of the reliability. The dangerous failures of electronic components can have critical and catastrophic consequences in the functionality of electronic equipment. The article deals with the procedure of the reliability calculation using various coefficients. Different mathematical models can be used for the same task of the reliability calculation. In order to solve the tasks, various methods can be used. All these facts may cause different results.Authors represent an approach to the coefficient method allowing to carry out the reliability calculation with higher precision and fidelity. The coefficient method is usable for comparing different ways for reliability calculation.Reliability, coefficient method, time to failures.

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