ISSN 1991-2927
 

ACP № 3 (65) 2021

'Автоматизация процессов управления / Automation of Control Processes' # 1  (63)  2021 (Release date - 31.03.2021)

Contents
AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEMS

Andrei Aleksandrovich Zakhariev, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the A.S. Popov Higher Naval School of Radioelectronics; Leading Research Associate of Federal Research-and-Production Center Joint Stock Company ‘Research-and-Production Association ‘Mars’; specializes in designing the dataware and application-specific software for computer-aided control systems; an author of articles in that problem domain. e-mail: andzah@bk.ruA.A. Zakharev

Evgenii Serafimovich Kukin, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering, Associate Professor; graduated from the Faculty of Physics of Voronezh State Technical University; First Deputy Chief Designer of FRPC JSC ‘RPA ‘Mars’; specializes in designing the dataware and application-specific software for computer-aided control systems; an author of articles in that problem domain. e-mail: mars@mv.ruE. S. Kukin

Iaroslav Vladislavovich Mazurov, graduated from Makarov Pacific Higher Naval School; Assistant Director for Special Projects of FRPC JSC ‘RPA ‘Mars’; specializes in design management of application-specific software for computer-aided control systems; an author of articles in that problem domain. e-mail: nobp178@mail.ruI. V. Mazurov

Aleksandr Ignatevich Chizhov, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the A.S. Popov Higher Naval School of Radioelectronics; Chief Specialist of FRPC JSC ‘RPA ‘Mars’; specializes in designing the application- specific software for computer-aided control systems; an author of articles in that problem domain. e-mail: mars@mv.ruA. I. Chizhov

Automated situation awareness in the navy’s computer-aided control systems63_1.pdf

Current development of Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is determined by advancing information technologies. The role of information support in the Navy is constantly growing and is crucial in military decision-making. The article deals with the conceptual approach to the integrated automation of situation awareness in the Navy’s computer-aided control system in order to enhance forces/troops management by providing the force command and military authority officers/ operators with analytical data obtained through acquisition and processing of situation information. For automation upgrade and effective management, the mathematical models of data processing represented by linear differential first- degree equations are given. These models describe the kinetics of various generated information resources and show analytical solutions of the volume of output information resources versus the volume of initial data and conversion rate.

Situation awareness, information objects, intellectual objects, data processing, mathematical models.


Yury Ivanovich Sineshchuk, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering, Professor; Honored Worker of the Higher School of the Russian Federation; graduated from the Faculty of Combat Information Management Systems of the A.S. Popov Higher Naval Academy of Radio Electronics; Professor of the St. Petersburg University of the MIA of Russia; specializes in the field of information analysis and security, stability of complex systems. e-mail: sinegal@rambler.ru.I. I. Sineshchuk

Tatiana Ivanovna Davydova, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Radioengineering Faculty of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Leading Engineer at FRPC JSC ‘RPA ‘Mars’; an author of articles and monograph in the field of calculations of radio equipment performance reliability. e-mail: tasha_dav@inbox.ruT. I. Davydova

The technique of substantiating the rational composition of information security tools with constrained resources63_2.pdf

Finding the optimal structure of an information security system is an important task complicated by its uncertain, stochastic and nonlinear nature especially, if resources are constrained. The article considers a mathematical model for determining the cost of damage prevented by information security tools, and the cost of their installation and maintenance. The optimization criterion is the minimum cost of the damage prevented. Task variables are the number of different types of security features installed in the security system. The authors propose a methodology to substantiate rational composition of information security tools, taking into account economic constraints.

Decision-making, threat to information security, information security system, mathematical model, damage.


Damir Albertovich Murzagulov, graduated from Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU); Improvado.io Chief Analyst; Postgraduate Student of the Department of Fundamental Informatics and Information Technologies of Tomsk State University; an author of articles in the field of the process data anomaly detection. e-mail: murzagulov.damir@gmail.comD. A. Murzagulov

Aleksandr Vladimirovich Zamiatin, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering, Associate Professor; graduated from Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU); Head of the Department of Fundamental Informatics and Information Technologies of Tomsk State University; an author of articles and guides in the field of data mining. e-mail: zamyatin@mail.tsu.ruA. V. Zamiatin

The process signal anomaly detection using classifier ensemble and wavelet transforms63_3.pdf

The IT-infrastructure development level of manufacturing plants allows to collect and storage technological information, thereby creating the possibilities to adapt data-mining systems. The article deals with the problem of anomaly detection in process signals with a view to improving the quality of control object monitoring. The ensemble of base classifiers based on algorithms of machine learning and wavelet transforms is proposed to detect anomalies. Authors examine the process signal characteristics and wavelet analysis advantages for signal preprocessing. An approach to the anomaly detection was developed based on a model ensemble. This approach was previously tested on actual process signals.

Process signals, machine learning, wavelet transform, anomaly detection, ensemble.


Maria Vladimirovna Stepanova,, graduated from the Faculty of Informatics and Control Systems of Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU) with Master’s degree in Computer Science; Postgraduate Student at the Department of Computer Systems and Networks of BMSTU, an author of scientific papers in the field of adaptive technologies in distributed systems and in education. e-mail: stepanova@bmstu.ruM. V. Stepanova

Oleg Iurevich Eremin, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Aerospace Faculty of Bauman Moscow State Technical University; Associate Professor of the Department of Computer Systems and Networks of the Faculty of Informatics and Control Systems at BMSTU; an author of articles in the field of adaptive technologies for processing unstructured and semi-structured data. e-mail: ereminou@bmstu.ruO. I. Eremin

The assignment of tasks to the nodes of the iot distributed system based on reinforcement machine learning63_4.pdf

The article describes issues of applying an adaptive approach based on reinforcement learning for assignment of the computing tasks to nodes of distributed Internet of Things (IoT) platform. The IoT platform consists of heterogeneous elements that are computing nodes. Classical approaches, methods, and algorithms for distributed and parallel systems are not suitable for task assignment in IoT systems due to its characteristics. The reinforcement learning method allows you to solve the problem of building a distributed system due to the adaptive formation of a sequence of computational nodes and the corresponding computational tasks. Thus, the article represents a method that makes IoT nodes capable of execution computing tasks, especially, which were previously designed for classical distributed and parallel systems.

Internet of Things, distributed systems and computations, computations nodes, programme code, parallel computing, machine learning, reinforcement learning, adaptive method.


INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Andrei Alekseevich Pertsev, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of Ulyanovsk State University; Head of an department at FRPC JSC ‘RPA ‘Mars’; an author of articles in the field of the automated enterprise management system implementation. e-mail: mars@mv.ruA. A. Pertsev

Aleksandr Nikolaevich Podobrii, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of Ulyanovsk State University; Deputy Chief of a department at FRPC JSC ‘RPA ‘Mars’; an author of articles in the field of the automated enterprise management system implementation. e-mail: mars@mv.ruA.N. Podobrii

Iuliia Aleksandrovna Radionova, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of Ulyanovsk State University; Lead Programming Engineer at FRPC JSC ‘RPA ‘Mars’; an author of articles in the field of automated workflow systems, intelligent technical documentation storage bases and systems for statistical analysis of supplier appraisal; research interests are in the field of electronic document management, archival depositories, statistical data analysis, decision support systems. e-mail: julia-owl@mail.ruI.A. Radionova

Material scheduling to provide manufacturing in machine industry63_5.pdf

The article describes an approach to the material scheduling to provide manufacturing by machinery designers. The approach is based on the statistics of material consumption over the last periods and on manufacturing sequence. The article considers information technology alternatives of production reserve planning. The authors propose the model of material support based on a time series analysis. They describe a study scheme and a database structure for calculating by the model developed. The algorithm steps of data analysis, modeling of time series and resulted VS test values comparison are described in details. The article defines an experimental calculation to test the model validity and diagrams to compare the time series of the main and auxiliary material sample pieces. The programmed calculations are given as an additional module for interactive web resource and are implemented through T-SQL.

Manufacturing plan formation, time series, critical path, scheduling network, material, resources, project manufacturing, mechanical engineering, capacity, statistics of operations fulfilled, shiftwork scheduling.


Anton Alekseevich Romanov, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Information Systems and Technologies of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Associate Professor of the Department of Information Systems of UlSTU; an author of articles in the field of intelligent systems of data storage and processing. e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. A.A. Romanov

Aleksei Aleksandrovich Filippov, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Information Systems and Technologies of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Associate Professor of the Department of Information Systems of UlSTU; an author of articles in the field of ontological modeling, intelligent systems of data storage and processing. e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. A.A. Filippov

An approach to the contextual analysis of time series63_6.pdf

Forecasting methods despite their conventions and limitations are the evolution of descriptive analytics mechanisms. Any model of the real-world objects works only under conditions of restrictions and agreements. The same conclusion can be made for the forecasting process, that it is not possible to forecast future state of the researched objects for 100%. However, building the most accurate forecast under the given conditions is the key. Modern data mining methods are based on a variety of models. However, such models can’t define the components of researched objects and processes except those contained in their models. The context allows using additional domain knowledge in describing the behavior of objects and processes in the form of qualitative assessments of their state. The same dataset in different domains will have various models and analysis results. The article deals with an approach to the domain context formation based on the ontology for analyzing time series of industrial processes indicators. The logical representation of the ontology based on the ALCHI(D) descriptive logic is also considered. The article describes as well experimental results confirming the correctness and effectiveness of the approach proposed.

Time series, time series analyzing, context, domain, ontology.


MATHEMATICAL MODELING

Aleksandr Kupriianovich Ivanov, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Physics at Irkutsk State University, completed his postgraduate studies at Bauman Moscow Technical School, doctoral studies at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Chief Staff Scientist of FRPC JSC ‘RPA ‘Mars’; an author of monographs, tutorial, articles in the field of the mathematical modeling of hierarchical real-time computer- aided control systems. e-mail: mars@mv.ruA.K. Ivanov

Aleksandr Leonidovich Savkin, Candidate of Military Sciences, Associate Professor; graduated from the Ulyanovsk Higher Military Command School of Communications and the Marshal Budjonny Military Academy of Signal Corps; completed his postgraduate studies in the Military Academy of Communications; Head of Science and Engineering Support Department of FRPC JSC ‘RPA ‘Mars’; an author of scientific works, manuals, and articles in the field of the development and modeling of communication control systems, automated information systems. e-mail: mars@mv.ruA.L.Savkin

Ilya Vasilyevich Chernyshev, Candidate of Military Sciences; graduated from the Novosibirsk Electronic Technical Institute of Communications; completed his postgraduate studies at the Marshal Budjonny Military Academy of Signal Corps; Associate Professor of the Department in Organizing Airport Activity and Information Technologies of Ulyanovsk Civil Aviation Institute; an author of textbooks and articles in the field of computer-aided control systems design, information technologies, and mathematical modeling. e-mail: chernyshev@ulstu.ruI.V. Chernyshev

The mathematical models of information decisions in operations controls63_7.pdf

The article proves the relevance of developing decision-support systems that ensure an automation of intellectual activity of operation controls officers. It gives a brief review of scientific researches in terms of psychology of behavior, perception and thinking; and shows the viability of mathematical models for decision-making based on the analogue ones in other science and technology domains having a corresponding mathematical apparatus. The authors create the scheme of information decisions made by operation controls, which includes several stages of initial data conversion and gradient distribution of information resources in a one-dimensional space of structural units. The complex of mathematical models for information decision making for three stages of conversion and for various modes of initial data entry has been developed. The first model describes the gradient distribution of initial data in the form of a partial differential equation, while converting stages are given as an ordinary differential one. The second model includes the gradient distribution of initial data and subsequently converted data in the space of operating controls. It is represented as a partial differential system. The third and fourth models additionally incorporate convective terms of partial differential equations. The article gives the analytical solutions of all models and the estimated structures of information resources allocation.

Decision-making, mathematical models, partial differential equations, ordinary differential equations.


Nikita Aleksandrovich Pchelin, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Ulyanovsk Higher Military Command School of Communications; completed his postgraduate studies at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Chief Designer at Federal Research and Production Center Joint-Stock Company ‘Research-and- Production Association ‘Mars’; an author of articles and RF patents in the field of error-correcting coding. e-mail: pna3@yandex.ruN.A. Pchelin

Mohammed A. Y. Damdam, Postgraduate Student of the Department of Telecommunications of Ulyanovsk State Technical University majoring in Informatics and Computer Engineering; graduated from UlSTU; an author of publications in the field of error-correcting coding and information protection. e-mail: dam_love@mail.ruM.A.Y. Damdam

Ali S.A. Al-Mesri, Postgraduate Student of the Department of Telecommunications of Ulyanovsk State Technical University majoring in Informatics and Computer Engineering; graduated from UlSTU; an author of publications in the field of error-correcting coding and information protection. e-mail: ali_almassry@mail.ruA.S.A. Al-Mesri

Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Brynza, Master’s Student at the Department of Telecommunications of Ulyanovsk State Technical University majoring in Infocommunication Technologies and Communication Systems; an author of publications in the field of error-correcting coding and information protection. e-mail: abrynza73@gmail.comA.A. Brynza

The paradigm of neural network decoding of non-binary redundant codes63_8.pdf

The use of noise-tolerant coding in modern communication systems remains the only means of increasing the efficient energy of such systems. This parameter tends to increase in conditions when the receiver of the communication system is able to correct errors of a large multiplicity. At the same time, the existing experience of using various methods for decoding the received data to achieve such a goal in the format of algebraic or iterative procedures does not give a noticeable effect and leads to a large time cost and an exponential increase in the complexity of implementing the decoder processor. The reason for this situation is the passive position of the receiver, which, when processing each code vector, remains a fixator of the picture that occurred in the communication channel and, in general, by compiling a system of linear equations and then solving it, tries to identify the error vector. Some exceptions are permutation decoding systems, which, by selecting and using reliable characters from the number received at the reception, simulate the operation of their transmitter and compare the received (almost error-free) result of such encoding with the received combination [1, 2]. With the growing influence of destructive factors, such methods are ineffective. A natural question arises: are modern solutions in neural network technologies capable of improving the characteristics of code vector recognition systems in order to obtain acceptable machine time costs in order to achieve an increase in the energy characteristics of communication systems.

Neural networks, redundant codes, cluster, pattern recognition.


Iaroslav Gennadevich Tetenkin, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Radioengineering Faculty of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Leading Engineer of the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics (IRE) of RAS; an author of scientific publications and inventions in the field of computer-aided measurement and parameter analysis of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits and measuring their thermal characteristics. e-mail: ufire@mv.ruI.G. Tetenkin

Viacheslav Andreevich Sergeev, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering, Professor; graduated from the Physics Faculty of Gorky State Technical University; Head of the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics (IRE) of RAS; Head of the Department of Radioengineering, Opto and Nanolectronics of Ulyanovsk State Technical University at the Ulyanovsk Branch of Kotel’nikov IRE of RAS; an author of monographs, inventions, and articles in the field of researching and simulating semiconductor devices and integrated circuits performance, and measuring their thermal characteristics. e-mail: sva@ulstu.ruV.A. Sergeev

The measurement of thermal parameters by changing frequency of embedded ring oscillator63_9.pdf

The article describes a brief analysis of linear thermal models of digital integrated circuits (DIC) and algorithms for determining the parameters of thermal equivalent circuits of DIC-based on transient thermal characteristics (TTC). It distinguishes the difficulties in implementing the algorithm for determining the thermal parameters of the DIC-based on the method of structure functions according to the JESD51-14 document and describes a new method for measuring the FPGA TTC by changing the frequency of a ring oscillator embedded in the FPGA logic elements. It also considers the hardware-software complex used for measuring the thermal parameters of FPGAs and proposes a simple algorithm for calculating the thermal parameters of FPGAs based on the analysis of the FPGA TTC using methods of numerical differentiation. The specified algorithm for calculating thermal parameters has been tested on the example of FPGA TTC EPM240T100C5 and Lattice M4A5-64/32.

Digital integrated circuits, thermal circuit, thermal parameters, transient thermal characteristics, FPGA, measurement, calculating algorithm.


Inna Aleksandrovna Martynova, Candidate of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics; graduated from the Department of Problems of Physics and Energetics of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, National Research University (MIPT); completed her postgraduate studies at MIPT; Senior Research Associate of the Sarov Institute of Physics and Technology at MIPT of National Research Nuclear University; an author of monographs, manuals, inventions, and articles in the field of system analysis of cryptographic information system elements. The present work was carried out at the Department of Radiophysics and Electronics of the Sarov Institute of Physics and Technology. e-mail: dim010307@yandex.ruI.A. Martynova

Methodological support for the dividing of factorial sets substitutions63_10.pdf

The substitution and permutation functions are the main functions of information cryptographic systems that provide diffusion and mixing of information. It is required to analyze these cryptographic primitives while creating new algorithms for data transformation using such functions. A new scale of notation has been proposed for performing such analysis. This is the factorial sets statistical series notation scale. This scale of notation helps to index the factorial sets statistical series elements and establish a one-to-one correspondence between the number and a specific type of substitution. The use of this system provides a way to find new characteristics and properties of substitutions. Since substitutions of the factorial sets form a cyclic group, the operation on elements of this group can be determined. In the general case, the operation used is a multiplication of substitutions, but this paper suggests another operation for group determination. The article presents a capability for dividing the factorial sets substitutions. Two methods for implementing the substitution division operations are proposed such as a method of successive transition and a method of group transition, which are implemented through non commutative operation of multiplying on inverted substitutions.

Substitutions, factorial sets, multiplying, dividing.


Aleksei Konstantinovich Khalaidzhi, graduated from Bauman State Technical University with Master’s degree in Computer Science and Engineering; Postgraduate Student at the Department of Computer Systems and Networks of BMSTU; an author of articles in the field of human-operator state monitoring by biosignals. e-mail: aleksei_halaidzh@mail.ruA.K. Khalaidzhi

Research of the cetlin method of automatic arrhythmia detection by ecg signals from mit-bih63_11.pdf

This article presents and solves the problem of evaluating the quality of the Cetlin method, which classifies the sequence of RR-intervals by the recordings of ECG signals from MIT-BIH, which have labels on R-peaks. To solve this problem, author proposes new quality metrics and describes developed algorithms for calculating them in real time with taking into account segmentation errors. Author analyzes the influence of the accuracy of the segmentation procedure for extracting the positions of R-peaks from ECG signal on the proposed quality metrics. Paper compares the quality of the Cetlin method and other existing algorithms for arrhythmia detection that analyze the duration of RR-intervals in accordance with a set of rules in real time. Article reveals advantages and limitations of the method. Paper shows that the method successfully detects SVEB and VEB arrhythmias. but has inertia, that leads to false positives, and is immune to morphological abnormalities that do not change the duration of RR-intervals. Author analyzes the influence of parameters of the Cetlin method on its quality according to the proposed metrics. Paper describes the procedure for searching the best parameters configuration. In conclusion, author reveals that there is no the only configuration, that achieves the best quality for each signal from MIT-BIH.

The Cetlin method, arrhythmia, ECG, RR-interval, quality metric, segmentation, R-peak, MIT-BIH, real-time mode.


COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING

Aleksandr Evgenievich Ivasev, Postgraduate Student of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; graduated from the Faculty of Information Systems and Technologies of UlSTU; the area of his scientific interests relates to computer-aided design systems. e-mail: alex.ivasev@gmail.comA.E. Ivasev

Yury Alexanderovich Lapshov, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Information Systems and Technologies of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Associate Professor of the Computer Engineering Department; the area of his scientific interests relates to designing the software-intensive automated systems. e-mail: y.lapshov@mail.ruI.A. Lapshov

Kirill Valerevich Svyatov, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Information Systems and Technologies of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Dean of the Faculty of Information Systems and Technologies of UlSTU; Head of the Computer Engineering Department; the area of his scientific interests relates to machine learning and robotics. e-mail: k.svyatov@ulstu.ruK.V.Sviatov

The software controlled experience base of a computer-aided system designer63_12.pdf

The article describes an approach to the creation of an experience base for a software design organization, which is focused on its application in the development of software-intensive automated systems (AS). The use of the proposed experience base extends the potential of the OwnWIQA tool-modeling environment in the workplace of a member of the software design team. The specificity of the toolkit includes the design of a reusable model (precedent model) in the process of work execution on the design of an AS, which is included in the experience base for the purpose of its further use in the development of AS or the creation of a new AS from the same family. The article describes the knowledge base model of software projects, tools for finding use cases, implemented in the OwnWIQA environment. Experimental studies are described that reveal the parameters of precision and recall for a precedent search in the knowledge base. The factors influencing these indicators for different users of the system are given. The article may be of interest to specialists in the field of building knowledge and experience bases.

Experience base, precedent model, project task, knowledge management, instrumental and technological tools.


Yury Alexanderovich Lapshov, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Associate Professor of the Computer Engineering Department at UlSTU; an author of articles, a monograph; a holder of certificates of software registration; the area of his scientific interests relates to computer-aided design systems, workflow management. e-mail: y.lapshov@ulstu.ruI.A. Lapshov

Automated control of the software prototype code review based on the question-answering protocols for requirement analysis63_13.pdf

The paper describes the architecture of software tools for automating the management of code review of software prototypes of design solutions that allow to obtain such effects as ensuring interactive interaction between the designer and an expert performing code review, as well as reducing the expert’s time spent on commenting the code by selecting a comment from the list prepared in advance for each requirement from the requirements obtained during the analysis. The tools being developed consist of three main parts. The first part presents requirements in a question-and-answer format including standard comments to be inserted into the prototype code in case of non-compliance with these requirements. The second one is a relational database, which is designed to store the source codes of prototypes aimed at inspection and passed it with expert comments. The third one is a Web-application that allows the designer to send prototype codes for review and see the results of the inspection, and an expert to provide viewing and editing of the prototype source code with the insertion of both standard, pre-prepared comments, and written in free form.

Prototyping, code review, requirements analysis, question-answer models.


Aleksei Vladimirovich Kozov, graduated from Bauman Moscow State Technical University of the Computer-Aided Design Systems Department; an engineer of the Center of Education and Research “Robotics” in BMSTU; an author of publications in the field of computer-aided design of robotic control systems. e-mail: alexey.kozov@ gmail.comA.V. Kozov

Models and designing methods for the dynamically reconfigurable group control system for mobile robots63_14.pdf

High adaptability is an important requirement for the control system over a group of mobile robots operating in a nondeterministic changing environment. The group control system must ensure that the group task is completed when the structure of the group or the environment changes. Such adaptability can be achieved through dynamic reconfiguration of the control system. The article discusses the mathematical models of a dynamically reconfigurable system from the standpoint of computer-aided design. A review of mathematical models of variable structure system, reconfigurable control systems and their design methods is presented. The paper deals with set-theoretic, analytical, discrete-event models of variable structure systems and methodologies of designing reconfigurable systems. It is shown that the existing design methods do not fully provide the required adaptability of designed group control system. The paper compares the group control system and the reconfigurable multiprocessor computing system and shows how to increase adaptability and autonomy of designed control system using principles of reconfigurable computing systems designing.

Control systems, distributed systems, mathematical model, discrete-event system, dynamic reconfiguration, mobile robot, computer-aided design.


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