ISSN 1991-2927
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## 'Automation of Control Processes' # 2 (36) 2014

Contents
AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEMS
 O. Peregudova, K. Pakhomov
 Constructing of Piecewise Constant Control in the Problem of Dynamic Positioning of Ship The paper deals with the results of solving the problem of control synthesis performing dynamic positioning of ship in a point. The problem of simple dynamic positioning, which is in alignment with the center of mass of the vessel with given point waters (center position) for the given requirements for the orientation course is considered. The solution of this problem is provided by use of control on the basis of feedback that asymptotically stabilizes the position and orientation of the ship. To justify the control law, which is based in a discrete form, Euler discrete approximation of the original continuous system is constructed and the method of recursive procedure of backstepping is applied. This procedure allows to build a controlled system that can be represented as a cascade connection of several subsystems. For each subsystem, the stabilizing control and the Lyapunov function are built. At the final step of the recursive procedure, a control law for the entire system and the corresponding Lyapunov function is constructed. Thus, the structure of the found control law essentially depends on the Lyapunov function used at each stage of the procedure. We justify the use of a new class of Lyapunov functions in the form of vector norms for solving this problem, which is used in comparison to previously known works with class of quadratic Lyapunov functions and allows us to simplify the control structure and improve its properties, such as the speed of convergence of the process at a given position. The results of numerical simulations, confirming a higher effectiveness of the proposed control law in comparison with the known results are obtained.Dynamic positioning, piecewise constant control, backstepping technique, lyapunov function.
 R. Shigapov, V. Krasheninnikov, A. Mattis
 Synthesis of a Fuzzy Controller for Control of Ship Hoist The present paper deals with a mathematical model of the system which is comprised of a ship hoist and a cable connecting the remotely controlled underwater vehicle with a surface ship; a fuzzy controller is synthesized to control the ship hoist allowing the minimum impact of the cable to the underwater vehicle.The mathematical model of the cable is represented by the N-system of the hinged rails (links); at this, the length of the first link and the link number allow their reduction over time. To model the ship hoist, a simplified model is applied. Recommendations are made to determine the membership functions for input and output variables of the developed controller, and to synthesize its rule database. The Mamdani algorithm is employed for the fuzzy logic output. When setting the membership functions and synthesizing the control rules, the restrictions for the cable strength and hoist persistence are taken into account. The paper gives the results of comparison of the ‘proportional-differential’ model with the fuzzy controllers. A computer program is developed where the performance of the hoist and control system within the ‘surface ship - cable - underwater vehicle’ system is simulated. To identify the hoist, we have used the actual features of SVL-4 hoist which is ‘Simbiya’ company produced. To implement the fuzzy modeling process, we have employed tools from MathWorks MatLab mathematical software package including Fuzzy Logic Toolbox, a specialized bump pack.Cable, ship hoist, fuzzy controller.
 N. Luchkov, N. Pchelin
 Object Grouping Based on Radar Observations The article presents a review of main principles of integration (grouping) of the radar-tracking observation object marks used in those processing points where the information on each object is not required or the density of mark reception from objects appears above the calculated throughput.The article offers an algorithm for object grouping based on joint use of the heuristic approach and the quality index allowing an automatic joint processing of data about the object coordinates and speed. An important outcome is an opportunity to increase the relevant object characteristics at initial grouping. The article shows an example of performance of the proposed method for grouping objects with the set coordinates and speed values.Grouping, tertiary processing, heuristic method, euclidean distance, radar marks.
 R. Martimov
 Electronic Steganography Signature of Video Data The article examines principles for building of an asymmetric system of video data authentication. The suggested scheme applies a method of digital watermarks. To provide for the authenticity, we have used the robust hashing function. The cryptographic basis is the scheme based on the Johansson electronic signature absolute stable scheme with the bit generation and verification. As a result, we ensure protection against external and potential internal intruders under conditions of the high error level at video compression. The article gives the experimental results of video data compressed with H.264 codec at variable stream speed. The experimental comparison is performed with one of the advanced asymmetric authentication schemes using digital watermarks based on the fragile electronic digital signature and fragile simulation plug. It is qualitatively discussed potential threats to the authenticity for the video sequence and analyzed how this scheme can face these threats.Steganography, digital watermarks, electronic signature, video stream.
MATHEMATICAL MODELING
 V. Smirnov, V. Sergeev, A. Gavrikov
 Spectral Method of Measurement of the Led Thermal Resistance and Estimation of the Optimal Performance The computer simulation helped the authors in studying the kinetics of the LED heating by the pulse-width modulated power varying harmonically. The programming model relies on a principle of the thermoelectric analogy saying that the heat dissipation processes on the path “chip - substrate - case - radiator - environment” are similar to electrical processes in the equivalent circuit, which is a set of serial-connected RC-chains. The task of simulation was to validate the LED thermal resistance measurement method based on heating by PWM power, as well as to study the effect on the accuracy and sensitivity of the method parameters such as heating pulse repetition period, frequency, and modulation coefficient, the number of heating pulses per modulation period. The simulation results shows that the method has an accuracy of 3%, and this value is independent of the heating pulse repetition period ranging between 80-200 ms. Sensitivity of the method depends on the modulation frequency of the heating power and heating pulse repetition period. It decreases with increasing modulation frequency, increases with the decrease of the repetition period at constant amplitude of oscillation pulse duration.Led, thermal resistance, heating process, computer simulation.
 A. Dozorov, V. Manzhosov
 Motion Modes of Shock System for Fluctuating Force Linear Function With Changing Characteristics Multiple technological processes are often related to using shock systems for performing of cyclic shocks on the object. Research of such systems’ dynamics, stability of motion, shock activity level requires examination of shock processes in systems with different structures. At the same time, a number of problems, confining an area of application of shock systems, arise. They are the following: finding of solutions by exact methods; taking into account complimentary non-liner factors; analysis of transient processes; detection of limit cycles of motion. These problems can be solved by means of developing the effective dynamic system simulation procedures based on the adequate mathematical models, process visualization, and representation and good processing of simulation results. The paper [1] provides an examination of the model of shock system, as well as the definition of its parameters, ensuring a required low of motion. However, a considered piecewise constant force impact may be applied to an ideal situation that is difficult to implement with a real system. Thus, it is required to know how the change of force impact would effect the mode of striker’s motion. The present paper deals with a model for shock system at force impact as linearly increasing and linearly decreasing function when force impulse, duration and period of the force impact are constant as at the piecewise constant function. A mathematical model for the shock mass motion under condition of collision with rigid barriers is given. The modeling of shock system motion at the force-impact piecewise constant, linearly increasing and linearly decreasing function is implemented. The comparative analysis of presented simulation results is performed. The motion mode of shock system at linearly increasing and linearly decreasing functions has been changed against the mode at the force-impact piecewise constant function (although the force impulse was constant in both cases). Following the results of implemented work, it may be deduced that the changing the force linear function characteristics, when impulse and duration of force, and part of cycles are constant at an appropriate system-parameter option, does not misrepresent the cyclic mode of shock mass motion if the process would be estimated at such criteria as velocity of shock to the right barrier, implementing of one impact per a cycle at the maximal velocity, and a cyclic behavior of impact.Shock system, motion modes of shock system, limit cycles of motion, modeling, cyclic mode of motion.
 V. Belov, A. Butkina, A. Shamaev
 Mathematical Simulation of Power Conversation Systems for Micro Grid Mathematical model of AC/DC/AC converter with energy storage device is developed on the base of the bridge element concept. This model is intended for the analysis of conducted interference at the designing stage of micro Smart Grid, which contain AC/DC/AC converters, as well as for the emulation of the control object at the software development stage of microcontrollers.Bridge element (B-element) is a generalized model of the m-phase bridge converter of electric power, in which transistors are modeled by ideal switches. Rules to represent a graph of the equivalent circuit of AC/DC/AC converter with energy storage as a set of subgraphs corresponding standardized bridge elements are developed. Application of these rules provides correctness of algorithm functioning of forming and solution of differential equations of the equivalent circuit at any state of the switches automatically.Computational aspects of the algorithm have been investigated on the example of mathematical simulation of AC/DC/AC converter with MPI distributed computing technology. Preliminary results showed that increasing of the simulation speed may be achieved by application of parallel computing technology for solution of the complete differential equations system formed on the B-element base. Element-wise forming and solution of differential equations systems does not increase the computational efficiency. Additional studies are required for final confirmation of these results.Smart grid, smart grid, power converter, mathematical model, power quality, parallel computation.
 E. Menshov
 Mathematical Modeling of Magnetic Separator for Quality Management Purification of Water Flows The paper is devoted to the modelling of the main characteristics of the water separator process fluids - dependence of the degree of cleaning of the size of the ferromagnetic particles, the rate of water flow and the thickness of the layer of particles deposited on the surface of the magnetic system. On the basis of reasonable approximations of the analytical solution of a nonlinear system of dynamic and kinematic equations of a particle moving in a laminar flow of fluid under the action of magnetic force fields. In this non-linear system of equations is reduced to an ordinary linear inhomogeneous differential equation with an equivalent right-hand side, which simulates the equivalent forces. The presence of equivalent force effectively for studying the behaviour of the simulated system on which found two significant areas for changes to the condition of motion of the particles. In the first zone of equivalent force contributes to the acceleration of the process of sedimentation of particles. In the second zone the equivalent force leads to inhibition of this process. The General solution of the linear differential equation describes the trajectory of the particle. The program of calculation of various families of characteristics of a cartridge magnetic separator is developed. Justified algorithm of application of the theoretical characteristics, aimed at the provision of quality management for the cleaning of process aqueous liquids.Degree of cleaning, laminar stream, motion equation, cleaning cycle time.
 A. Tcynaeva
 Numerical Investigation of the Temperature Stratification The intensity of heat and mass transfer in devices based on the gas-dynamic temperature stratification, for example, in a supersonic pipe temperature stratification (in the Leontief’s pipe) is determined by the heat flow through the separation wall between subsonic and supersonic flows. This paper presents the mathematical modeling and numerical study of heat transfer in devices of gas-dynamic temperature stratification using passive stimulation techniques. The efficiency of heat pipes (HP) and the metal edges of the same configuration were researched. Mathematical modeling was performed using a mathematical model. The mathematical model includes differential equations that describe the motion and heat transfer in the boundary layer; equations for calculation of heat transfer processes in heat pipes; equations to calculate the heat flow between subsonic and supersonic flows in the device of gas-dynamic temperature stratification.It was found that the intensification of heat transfer devices based on the gas-dynamic temperature stratification (in the Leontief’s pipe) through the use of heat pipes is increasing up to 3 times. It was established that the use of heat pipes with a wick of material copper-water is more of using efficiency of heat pipes with the working material in the aluminum-acetone up to 1.05 ... 1.12 times.Mathematical modeling, numerical investigation, temperature stratification, intensification, heat pipes.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
 S. Norseev, D. Bagaev
 Algorithm Design for Distributed Research of Unknown Terrain Using a Group of Mobile Robots The paper examines a research task of unknown terrain by group of mobile robots. A formal problem statement for the unknown terrain survey using a group of the mobile robots is carried out. The method of dividing the unknown terrain into zones that considers limitations of computer vision systems of a single robot and free geometrical shape of the area is described. An algorithm for unknown terrain survey by group of mobile robots that considers the possible presence in the survey area obstacles of arbitrary shape and size and that detects in the survey terrain some object, which requires for special actions by robots, is proposed. This algorithm considers the limitations of computer vision systems of robots and arbitrary geometrical shape of the area.The software modeling of the distributed robotic system on the base of the proposed algorithm conducted in the frame of this work has shown that the proposed algorithm can be used for solving the distributed unknown terrain survey problem. The application architecture used for the simulation of the described robotic system is given.Robotics, robotics group control, algorithms.
 S. Savotchenko, V. Stukalov, E. Proskurina
 Dynamics of Semantic Measure of Search Query Results The article presents the research results of changing the quality characteristics of information search in time illustrated by the example of five global search systems. The implementation of semantic measure and partial semantic measure of definition search query results was estimated to display that the automated search systems are in a position to output the pertinent documents at simple select query.To analyze the stability over time the results of information retrieval, in the use of quantitative indicators for implementation of the sequence of normalized conditional queries. Defined methodology for conducting trials to capture the dynamics of semantic query results to measure the automated retrieval information systems.We used the quantitative characteristics specifying the conditional standard query sequence implementation to analyze the stability of retrieval results in time. It was defined the methodology for conducting trials to capture the dynamics of semantic query results to measure the automated retrieval information systems.The article presents dynamics of completeness semantic relations and semantic measures of the SERPs information retrieval systems Yandex, Rambler, Nigma, Qip, and Mail.ru. Based on the realizations of random trajectories semantic dependency measures and partial measures, mean values are calculated for the observation period. Analysis of variance values of the partial measures as a function of weight showed that among the surveyed search engines, Mail.ru has to some extent the possibility of pertinence search.Descriptor, information search, semantic relations, paradigmatic relations, information retrieval systems.
 V. Moshkin, N. Yarushkina
 Ontological Time-series Analysis System This article describes a semantic approach to analyzing the time series as an example of local area network (LAN) status parameters using the ontology of problem area. We represent a formal model of the OWL-ontology for the considered subject domain, an ontological view model for a set of production rules. An inference algorithm for LAN architecture modification during its status estimation while artificially increasing traffic is proposed.We solved the aggregation problem of the different approaches to expert knowledge representation through the product knowledge integration into the ontological model using SWRL- rules. In addition, the implementation of this algorithm in the time-series analysis software TSAnalyzer is considered.The results of computational experiments on LAN-status simulation while artificially increasing traffic as an example of the LAN of the Center for Development of Electronic Media Technologies at Ulyanovsk State Technical University are represented. We summarized the research results conducted and evaluated further research findings expectation in this domain.Ontology, time series, data mining, semantics.
COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING
 V. Maklaev, P. Sosnin
 Question-answer Modeling of the Operational Spacein Designing the Family of Automated Systems For last 20 years, the successfulness of developing the software intensive systems (SIS) has been associated with a very low degree of a success (approximately 35% in accordance with universally recognized statistics of Standish Croup company), and it is an important reason for searching of new approaches to occupational activity in this subject area which enough fully reflects problems of occupational activity in human-computer environments. Negative influences of human factors (misunderstanding, ambiguity of reasoning and the others) are being recognized as basic reasons of unsuccessfulness in creating and using of SISs and automated systems (AS) as a subclass of SIS, and it inevitable concerns relations of the human with the software. A very important direction of an implementation and improvement of the human-computer activity is bound with discovering, representing and evolving an occupational experience. The special role of interactions with experience in human-computer environments is confirmed by active evolving of the subject area “empirical software engineering” in the frame of which the special kind of “metrology” is developed. This subject area is also bound with the creation and use of the Experience Bases and Experience Factories and with methods and means of “experimenting” in human-computer environments. Told above includes sufficient arguments to count the creation of innovative methods and means of conceptual experimenting in human-computer environments is topical.Formalization of conceptual experimenting is implemented with using a system of rules of the generated grammar which shall include the sets of rules specifying a reflection of all components of professional work onto a question-answer memory. A program realization of the instrumentally technological environment intended for conceptual experimenting, in the form of a program product which is demanded commercially and adjusted on a definite kind of occupational activity.Cad, conceptual experimenting, experience base, precedent, professional maturity.
 S. Maksimov, O. Maksimova, M. Samokhvalov
 Tasks of Modeling Automation of Brightness and Luminous Efficiency of Thin-film Electroluminscent Condensators The modern means of information representation intended for professional use must meet certain requirements which depend on their field of application and maintenance conditions. The selection of constructive decisions is made according to the visualization system requirements. Certain of the computer-aided design (CAD) system simplifies the procedure of the design choice with necessary characteristics. The presented of investigations and calculations of the lighting characteristics of thin-film electroluminescent indicators. The main characteristics of indicator devices are explained by means impact excitation activator centers with the following light relaxation. These equations have been adapted for the development of CAD system of thin-film electroluminescent indicators. The presented of conspicuous lighting parameters dependence on the structural factors. Physical processes determined the thin-film light emitters work are sufficiently studied, that permits elaboration and production of different indicators and displays.Thin film electroluminescence indicator, brightness, luminous efficiency, phosphor, activator centers, electroluminescence.
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