ISSN 1991-2927
 

ACP № 3 (65) 2021

Section: "ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRONICS"

Viacheslav Andreevich Sergeev, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Physics of Gorky State Technical University; Head of the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics (IRE) of RAS; Head of the Department of Radioengineering, Opto and Nanolectronics of Ulyanovsk State Technical University at the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov IRE; an author of monographs, inventions, and articles in the field of researching and simulating semiconductor device and integrated circuit performance, and measuring their thermal characteristics. e-mail: sva@ulstu.ruV.A. Sergeev,

Maksim Iurievich Salnikov, Postgraduate Student the Department of Radioengineering, Opto and Nanolectronics of Ulyanovsk State Technical University at Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov IRE; graduated from the Radioengineering Faculty of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Engineer at FRPC JSC RPA ‘Mars’; an author of publications and inventions in the field of quality control of elements and units of computer machines and management systems. e-mail: salnikov-1309@mail.ruM.I. Salnikov,

Azat Maratovich Nizametdinov, graduated from the Radioengineering Faculty of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Senior Scientist at the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov IRE; an author of publications and inventions in the field of measurement automation and researching the characteristics of materials and electronic devices. e-mail: ufire@mv.ruA.M. Nizametdinov

The quality control of plated-through holes of printed circuit boards by pulsed laser heating65_13.pdf

The article gives a brief overview of standard methods of quality control and defect diagnostics of plated-through holes (PTH) of printed circuit boards (PCB) and considers their main disadvantages. It scrutinizes the methods of thermal control, which are reduced to PTH heating and monitoring the temperature. The main disadvantage of common methods is that they require a contact during heating the PTH and temperature measurement, which leads to significant errors and low reliability of control. The article describes a non-contact method involving heating only one side of the PTH by a laser beam and non-contact temperature measurement of the PTH ends by an IR camera. The authors propose a thermal equivalent scheme of PTH to analyze the transient thermal processes in PTH, which takes into account the heat removal from the plating of PTH into the PCB material. It is shown that the quality of plating can be estimated by the temperature difference between the upper (heated) and lower ends of the PTH, and the quality of adhesion between PTH plating and the PCB material can be estimated by the ratio of temperature increments. The article describes peculiarities of this method and gives the results of its testing on a real sample.

Printed circuit board, plated-through hole, quality control, non-contact thermal method, one-sided heating, thermal equivalent circuit, thermal transient characteristics.

2021_ 3

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Vadim Vladimirovich Borisov,, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MPEI); Professor of the Department of Computer Engineering at the Smolensk Branch of National Research University “MPEI”; an author of research papers in the field of data mining and modeling of complex systems and processes. e-mail: vbor67@mail.ruV.V. Borisov,

Sergei Pavlovich Kurilin, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from Moscow Power Engineering Institute; Professor of the Department of Electromechanical Systems at the Smolensk Branch of National Research University “MPEI”; an author of research papers in the field of mathematical modeling of electromechanical systems. e-mail: sergkurilin@gmail.comS.P. Kurilin,

Margarita Vitalevna Chernovalova, graduated from National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute”; Postgraduate Student at National Research University “MPEI”; an author of research papers in the field of creation and development of intelligent decision support methods. e-mail: 0208margarita@bk.ruM.V. Chernovalova

Analysis of inhomogeneous electromechanical systems based on a topological approach65_14.pdf

Stricter requirements for the efficiency and reliability of technical systems predetermine an in-depth study of electromechanical systems. The study involves taking into account the heterogeneity of their physical and vector space as operational factors that have a significant impact on the energy efficiency and reliability of the object. The proposed topological approach to the study of heterogeneous electromechanical systems (NEMS) is based on the analysis of their vector space. The multidimensionality, heterogeneity, and composite nature of the vector space are analyzed. Typical examples of the restrictions imposed on space vectors by the connection schemes of three-phase and multiphase NEMS windings are given. The main energy field is presented and the principle of the formation of the effective energy state of NEMS is formulated. Describes the tasks and method of implementing the operational diagnostics of NEMS based on the topological approach. In conditions of uncertainty, as well as heterogeneous quality, insufficient data, the feasibility of sharing the methods of fuzzy cognitive and logical analysis and modeling is substantiated. A cascade hybrid model is proposed, as well as methods for studying the vector space and operational diagnostics of NEMS based on it.

Heterogeneous electromechanical system, topological approach, operational diagnostics, fuzzy cognitive-logical model, fuzzy logical model.

2021_ 3

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Rudolf Aleksandrovich Brazhe, Doctor of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Head of the Department of Physics of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; graduated from the Faculty of Physics of Saratov State University named after N.G. Chernyshevsky; an author of many scientific papers, monographs, tutorials, and invention certificates; research interests are in the field of wave processes, nanomaterials, and nanoelectronics, computational and control systems elements. e-mail: brazhe@ulstu.ruR.A. Brazhe,

Dmitrii Andreevich Dolgov, graduated from the Engineering and Physics Faculty of High Technology of Ulyanovsk State University; a postgraduate student at the Department of Physics of UlSTU; an author of publications in the field of physics of nanostructures and control system elements. e-mail: deimosrffi@yandex.ruD.A. Dolgov

Nanorelay and logical elements based on graphene and hexagonal boron nitride64_13.pdf

Recently, the problem of creating new types of storage devices having non-volatile memory and commensurate in speed and number of rewriting cycles with operational storage is getting more relevant. However, microminiaturization of most known devices of this kind appears to have already reached scaling limits. In this regard, many computer developers have become involved in the development of low-power processors based on nanoelectromechanical relay elements.
The article proposes nanorelay and logical elements based on graphene and hexagonal boron nitride having piezoelectric properties. It describes their design features, working principles and expected characteristics are described.
It is noted that for the successful practical implementation of the proposed idea it is advisable to carry out additional works on synthesis of new two-dimensional piezoelectric and electroconductive nanostructures, which allow to reduce control voltage and the distance between relay contacts even in the off state.

Graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, nanorelay, logical elements.

2021_ 2

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Levchenko Roman Vasilevich, graduated from the Department of Computer-aided Design and Engineering at National University of Science and Technology MISIS with the Master’s degree in Applied Informatics; Postgraduate Student of the Department of Computer-aided Design and Engineering at NUST MISIS majoring in Informatics and Computer Science; specialized in the field of software development for quality express-testing the semiconductor performance. e-mail: karatays@yandex.ruL.R. Vasilevich

The algorithm for searching the solar cell scanning area to diagnose its efficiency64_14.pdf

The article deals with the method developed for diagnosing photo scanning of solar cells using a monitor screen and a personal computer connected to it. The photo-scanning method can be used as quality control in the technological chain of semiconductor devices. The method comprises hardware and software. The hardware part is used for obtaining photo- response in form of voltage. The software part ensures receiving, processing, storing and visualizing of data.
The proposed device has a problem of entering scanning area of the solar cells. This problem is revealed at stage of element positioning in the diagnostic process. The defect is eliminated by introducing a software and mathematical support for searching sensitive area of an element.
The algorithm of the scanning area search scanning is a process of exposure light spot in form of rows and columns. Photovoltage values in these areas are compared with the value of insensitivity limit. As a result, the program receives illumination area of the the solar cell effective region. The algorithm also increases the diagnostic speed in case of complete loss of efficiency in a some area of.

Solar battery, solar cell, semiconductor, diagnostics, automation, software, photoscanning method.

2021_ 2

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Nikolai Iurevich Babanov, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from Lobachevski State University of Nizhny Novgorod; Vice-Rector for Development Programmes of Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev; an author of articles and monographs in the field of signal processing and information security. e-mail: babanov@nntu.ruN. Babanov,

Anatolii Afanasevich Gladkikh, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Marshal Budjonny Military Academy of Signal Corps; completed his postgraduate studies at the Military Academy of Communications; Professor at the Department of Telecommunications of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of monographs, textbooks, articles, and patents in the field of noise-immune coding and information security. e-mail: a.gladkikh@ulstu.ruA. Gladkikh,

Sergei Mikhailovich Namestnikov, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from Ulyanovsk State Technical University, completed postgraduate studies at UlSTU; Associate Professor of the Department of Telecommunications at UlSTU; an author of articles in the field of statistical signal processing. e-mail: sernam@ ulstu.ruS. Namestnikov,

Sergei Valentinovich Shakhtanov, graduated from the Leningrad Higher Military Engineering School of Communications; Senior Lecturer of the Department of Infocommunication Technologies and Communication Systems at Nizhny Novgorod State Engineering and Economic University; an author of articles in the field of noise-immune coding and information security. e-mail: r155p@bk.ruS. Shakhtanov

Properties of cyclic structures in the system of permutation decoding of redundant codes 60_11.pdf

The practice of using optical cables as part of large data centers is gaining a steady trend of switching from single-mode fibers to their multimode counterparts. This is due to a number of economic indicators that are advantageous for multimode fibers and their wide capabilities to transmit significant amounts of data at high speeds over short distances within the boundaries of a specific object. For this reason, a similar trend is beginning to be observed in transport infrastructure, aircraft and shipbuilding. At the same time, the objectively expected loss in terms of the bit error rate in multimode cables is successfully compensated by means of noise-tolerant encoding. In this regard, there is an increased interest in permutation decoding systems for systematic redundant codes that allow the use of cognitive methods of digital data processing. This provides an adequate acceleration of the decoding procedure for such codes at time intervals close to the speed of data exchange in optical cables. The time gain is achieved by preliminary calculation of generating matrices of equivalent codes, the structure of which is set by stochastic permutation of the symbols of the accepted combinations depending on the current interference vector. The result of this calculation is stored in the decoder's cognitive map. Due to this, the time required for rapid calculation of the equivalent code is replaced by a short search time for the finished matrix from the memory of the cognitive map using the cyclic properties of permutations.

Soft symbol solution, permutation, permutation orbits, equivalent code, permutation decoding, cognitive decoder map.

2020_ 2

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Konstantin Konstantinovich Vasilev, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Radioengineering Faculty at Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute n.a. V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin) (“LETI”); Professor of the Department of Telecommunications at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Honoured Worker of Science and Technology of the Russian Federation, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan; an author of monographs, manuals, and articles in the field of statistical synthesis and analysis of information systems. e-mail: vkk@ulstu.ruK. K. Vasilev

Vitalii Evgenevich Dementev, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering, Associate Professor; graduated from the Faculty of Economics and Mathematics with the specialty in Applied Mathematics at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Head of the Department of Telecommunications at UlSTU; an author of monographs and articles in the field of statistical synthesis and analysis of multidimensional images. e-mail: dve@ulntc.ruV. E. Dementev

Aleksei Vladimirovich Belianchikov, Postgraduate Studentofthe Departmentof Telecommunications at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; graduated from UlSTU with the Master’s degree in Infocommunication Technologies and Communication Systems; an author of publications in the field of information and communication systems. e-mail: friedlemon73@gmail.comA. V. Belianchikov

Receiving discrete messages in multi-frequency communication systems with pilot signals60_12.pdf

The optimal algorithm for receiving multi-position signals in multi-frequency communication systems with the estimation of quadrature components (CS) has been synthesized using the Bayesian approach. The algorithm is similar to the well-known quadratic-linear receiver, but differs in the presence of optimal CS estimates and parameter correction in its composition. The article considers possibilities of evaluating CS based on built-in pilot signals and image processing methods as well. Upon that autoregressive models with multiple roots of characteristic equations, which allow simulating quasi-isotropic fields, are suggested for approximating the real correlation functions of the CS fields. The study shows that the use of such models results in a slight increase in the variance of the reconstruction error with respect to the discrete Wiener filter, but allows using recurrent interpolation of random fields with minimal computational costs. The article describes conditions under which it is possible to make the simplest CS estimation based on observations of the nearest pilot signals.

Communication system, pilot signal, quadrature components, white noise, autoregression, correlation function, covariance matrix of estimates, Wiener filter, Kalman filter.

2020_ 2

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Natalia Valerevna Evglevskaia, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of Saint Petersburg State Transport University; a lecturer of the Marshal Budjonny Military Academy of Signal Corps; an author of articles in the field of information security. e-mail: n.evglevskaya@gmail.com. Roman Sergeevich Pak, Cadet of the Marshal Budjonny Military Academy of Signal Corps; an author of an article in the field of network theory. e-mail: pakroman17@gmail.comN. V. Evglevskaia

Roman Sergeevich Pak, Cadet of the Marshal Budjonny Military Academy of Signal Corps; an author of an article in the field of network theory. e-mail: pakroman17@gmail.comR. S. Pak

Andrei Andreevich Privalov, Doctor of Military Sciences, Professor; graduated from the Stavropol Higher Military School of Communications of Communications; Professor of the Department of Telecommunications of Emperor Alexander I St. Petersburg State Transport University; a patent holder, author of articles, monographs in the field of information security, mathematical modeling of systems and communication processes, telecommunications control systems. e-mail: aprivalov@inbox.ruA. A. Privalov

Nikolai Aleksandrovich Khmelliar, graduated from the Marshal Budjonny Military Academy of Signal Corps; an officer of a department of the Military Unit No. 61535; an author of articles in the field of network theory. e-mail: theboyxxx@yandex.ruN. A. Khmelliar

Simeon Aleksandrovich Shinkarev, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering; completed the postgraduate studies at the Marshal Budjonny Military Academy of Signal Corps; Associate Professor at the Marshal Budjonny Military Academy of Signal Corps; a patent holder, author of articles in the field of network theory. e-mail: se_men82@ mail.ruS. A. Shinkarev

Algorithm for finding the conditioned spanning tree to transmit synchronization signals to the communication networks60_13.pdf

In designing, building and operation stages of communication networks, the requirements for different subsystems, and especially for the control subsystem, must be taken into account. In the present environment of constant increase of transmitting messages in communication networks, the requirements for the quality of digital channels and network devices are getting higher. The control subsystem as an integral part of the communication network is to be built in conjunction with it, but there are some independent tasks, that can be solved only for the control subsystem. One of the most important subsystems is the clock network synchronization one, which generates, transmits and distributes synchronization signals, required for keeping functioning of all digital network devices and for providing services of specified quality. The most crucial aspect of the synthesis of the clock network synchronization subsystem is the selection of hierarchy (scheme) of control signal distribution. The authors of the article developed the algorithm of building such a subsystem, which is the minimal rank conditioned tree with the best length of the line grid connecting all network nodes. This algorithm allows obtaining the optimized clock network synchronization subsystem and the control subsystem in general, because the algorithm is multifunctional and can be used for solving different tasks. Problems described in the article are of great importance both for fixed network structures and for the conditions of dynamic change of communication networks topology.

conditioned spanning tree, control subsystem, theorem of O.B. Lupanov, algorithms of Prim and Kruskal, STP.

2020_ 2

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Viacheslav Andreevich Sergeev, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering, Professor; graduated from the Faculty of Physics of the Lobachevsky State University of Gorky; Director of the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-Engineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Head of the Department of Radioengineering, Opto- and Nanoelectronics of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an invention holder and author of monographs, articles in the field of the performance analysis and thermal parameter measurement of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. e-mail: sva@ulstu.ruV. A. Sergeev

Ruslan Gennadevich Tarasov, graduated from the Ulyanovsk Higher Military Command School of Communications; Director of JSC ‘NPP ‘Zavod Iskra’; an applicant at the Department of Radioengineering, Opto- and Nanoelectronics of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of publications in the field of development of methods and instruments for parameter measurements and quality control of radioelectronic devices. e-mail: rgtarasov@yandex.ruR. G. Tarasov

Quality control of x-band output power amplifier submodules by transient thermal characteristics60_14.pdf

A brief rview of techniques and facilities for detecting hidden defects in electronic modules by thermal diagnostic and measuring methods for characterizing the thermal properties of active devices in electronic modules is presented. It is shown that the assembly quality of modern submodules of X-band output power amplifiers (OPA) with two parallel- connected GaAs monolithic microwave intеgrated circuits can be assessed by the temperature difference of these monolitic integrated circuits during the OPA operation. A Foster-type thermal equivalent circuit with two galvanic-coupled active devices (unpacked semiconductor devices) is examined in order to describe and analyse thermal processes in OPA. A new method for measuring the thermal junction-to-case resistance and thermal junction-to-case time constant of semiconductor devices by transient thermal characteristics at the start of heating process when applying heat power of two different levels to the electronic module is described. The method is distinguished and favoured among others, due to the fact that it is not required to measure power consumed by each semiconductor device; only the total power consumed by the electronic module from the power supply is specified when measuring. The error of this estimation method does not exceed 10 percent. Сonditions and features of the method applied to the OPA submodules are considered.

Submodule of output power amplifier, active devices, electronic module, semiconductor devices, heat power, thermal parameters, measurement, transient thermal characteristics.

2020_ 2

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Gennadii Nikolaevich Abramov, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering, Professor of the Department of Industrial Electronics of Togliatti State University (TlSU); Honored Worker of Higher Professional Education in Russia; an author of monographs, study guides, patents, and scientific publications in the field of analog-to-digital and digital-to-analogue conversions of monopulse electrical signals (MIES). e-mail: yuran_a@mail.ru.G.N. Abramov

Iurii Gennadevich Abramov, Master in Engineering and Technology of Electronic Devices and Hardware; graduated from Togliatti State University; a system administrator of Labyrinth Volga, LLC; an author of scientific publications and patents in the field of analog-to-digital conversions of MIES parameters. e-mail: yuran_a@mail.ruI.G. Abramov

Improved efficiency of nonius-pulse time-digital converters59_12.pdf

The article deals with two methods, both methods are implemented in two versions, reducing the additional conversion time to (first options) and (second options) times of non-pulse-time-to-digital converters (TDC). In both methods, the conversion process is organized according to the interpolation scheme, it contains the conversion scales “roughly”, “precisely” and “more precisely” and two (start and stop) recirculation generators. The whole number of follow-up periods Тstr that filling the duration of the converted time interval (TI) of the start one (in the first cases) or multiphase (in the second cases) recirculation generator RGstr is initially “roughly” determined in the course of the interpolation conversion. Then the nonius-pulse method - “exactly”, with discreteness Tstr, digitizes that part of the converted TI, which is enclosed between the last recorded impulse of the RGstr and directly the end of the converted TI. Further, the direct encoding method - “more precisely”, with the discreteness of the conversion , encodes the TI, the duration is less than the value. Moreover, in both methods, a single-phase stop recirculation generator RGstp is used. The hardware implementation of the first method is based on the use of a single-phase RGstr and a separate direct-coding (DC) module, which only performs the “more accurate” conversion and does not participate in the “rough” and “exactly” conversions. Whereas in the second method, the DC TDC, through its multi-tap delay line, is introduced directly into the RGst, transforming it into a multiphase generator, which forms single-phase reading scales “roughly”, “exactly” and a multiphase scale “more precisely”, which ensures a decrease in of the instability of the discreteness of the transformation “exactly” and “more precisely”. The use of multiphase RGstr makes it possible to eliminate the problem of pairing (docking) of all three conversion scales.

Vernier-pulse time-to-digital converters, single- and multiphase recirculation generators, direct-coding analog- to-digital converters, pulse-counting sequence, conversion resolution.

2020_ 1

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Aleksei Aleksandrovich Zadorozhnii, graduated from the Faculty of Information Systems and Technologies of Ulyanovsk State Technical University with the specialty in Instrument Engineering, Postgraduate Student of the Faculty of Information Systems and Technologies of UlSTU; Head of a thematic integrated team in Ulyanovsk Instrument Manufacturing Design Bureau, JSC, an author of articles in the field of mathematical modeling and algorithms for air data systems. e-mail: alezador@gmail.comA.A. Zadorozhnii

Determining the reliability of the indicated speed parameter based on the dynamic object characteristics obtained during flight tests59_13.pdf

The article presents the results of calculation and modeling of the algorithm for determining the reliability of the instrument speed parameter based on the dynamic characteristics of the object. The problem statement is formulated as follows: it is necessary to conduct a flight experiment and subsequent processing of its results in order to determine the permissible range of speed changes with a known set of data on the engine mode, pitch values and measured angle α. Wherein is necessary to give problem decision by regular means of the on-board equipment of the facility, without the use of additional trajectory measurement systems, and satellite system data. The optimization and definitions of law was performed by using the computer-aided system MathLab. Analysis of the results of the introduction of this algorithm showed that the determination of reliability can be performed with limited statistics of the obtained dynamic characteristics of the object. When using data from standard aircraft systems (inertial, engine control system, aerodynamic angle sensor), as well as a large number of flights in the anticipated operating conditions, we can expect a decrease in confidence determination thresholds to ± 60 km/h.

Air data system, air data modeling, instrument speed, reliability.

2020_ 1

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Viktor Vladimirovich Podoltsev, graduated from the A.F. Mozhaysky’s Military Space Academy in 2009; Postgraduate Student of the Astrakhan State Technical University; research interests are in in the field of information processing, synchronization, noise immunity. e-mail: pvv_001@mail.ruV.V. Podoltsev

Iskandar Maratovich Azhmukhamedov, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering, Professor; graduated from Kazan State University named after V.I. Ulyanov-Lenin; Head of the Information Security Department of the Astrakhan State University; research interests are in the field of information processing, synchronization, noise immunity. e-mail: aim_agtu@mail.ruI.M. Azhmukhamedov

Evaluation of the efficiency of synchronizing pseudorandom sequences on the basis of majoritary algorithm at the development of destructive errors59_14.pdf

Despite a substantial period of time, the problem of pseudo-random sequences (PRS) synchronization still remains topical. First, this is due to the wide technologies commercialization of distributed spectrum started in the late 70-s of XX century [1] by introduction of mobile telephone systems, and due to continued development aimed at increased efficiency [2]. Secondly, the urgency of the problem can be connected to the implementation of advanced methods of multiple accesses, greatly increasing the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols using PRS. Thus, the use of PRS-oriented MAC protocols in the information processing systems is topical and the most promising tendency of information technology development under informatization conditions in country during the transition to a digital economy. The paper aims at evaluating the effectiveness of PRS synchronization on the basis of majority algorithm with increasing destructive errors and at justification of objectives for further research. The paper deals with the following methods: Ward’s method (for ‘valid interval’), the synchronization method based on a majority of the processing segments of the PRS. It is shown that the majority method is beneficial for noise immunity by correcting errors in the valid interval, in comparison with Ward’s method and can be easily implemented at sub-level access to the transmission medium MAC. Also the paper considers the synchronization method based on a majority of the processing segments of the PRS. It justifies urgency of such techniques at sub-level of MAC protocols. The article also describes goals and topical objectives of further study viz. evaluation of time characteristics of the synchronization method based on the majority of checks; evaluation of probabilistic characteristics method, providing that the information processing system is synchronized by a short segment of PRS; method modification based on obtained results for the purpose of improving its efficiency by increased probability of destructive errors in information processing and control systems using PRS-oriented MAC protocols of multiple access.

Information processing, average search time, probability of a destructive error, methods of pseudo-random sequence synchronization, method of majority information processing, Ward’s method.

2020_ 1

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Oksana Vadimovna Maksimova, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering, Associate Professor; graduated from Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Head of the Department of Aviation Equipment of the Bugaev Ulyanovsk State Institute of Civil Aviation; an author of articles, monographs, and inventions in the field of optoelectronics and microwave engineering. e-mail: first32007@yandex.ruO.V. Maksimova,

Petr Valerevich Nikolaev, Postgraduate Student at the Department of Design and Technology of Electronic Devices of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; graduated from the Radioengineering Faculty of UlSTU; an author of articles, inventions in the field of optoelectronics and computer engineering. e-mail: nikollaew@mail.ruP.V. Nikolaev,

Mikhail Konstantinovich Samokhvalov, Doctor of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics, Professor at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; graduated from the Faculty of Physics of Chernyshevsky Saratov State University; an author of articles, monographs in the field of optoelectronics. e-mail: sam@ulstu.ruM.K. Samokhvalov

Methods and means for automated monitoring of thin film indicators58_12.pdf

The article deals with the algorithms, methods for measuring the structure parameters of thin-film electroluminescent indicators. An algorithm for determining threshold voltage and plotting current-brightness characteristics was created. The realization of this algorithm accelerates the parameters monitoring process when producing the known display equipment items and developing the new one based on thin-film electroluminescent indicators. The main aspects for a comprehensive approach to solve problems of measuring process automation of parameter values of thin-film electroluminescent indicator structures were identified. The features of the thin-film electroluminescent indicator performance were considered as a basis for building the structure of automated testers. The automation of experimental results processing at the software level was described. The key parameters of indicators were determined, automation problems of measuring processes were denoted. The algorithm for determining threshold voltage and plotting current-brightness characteristics of thin-film electroluminescent indicators in an automated mode was developed. The ideas explained in this article allow formulating the requirement specification on developing a device for automated measuring the thin-film electroluminescent element parameters as well as its components and software.

Thin-film indicator, brightness, automation, measurements, electroluminescence, thin films, algorithm.

2019_ 4

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Sergei Aleksandrovich Kurganov, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from Ulyanovsk Polytechnic Institute with a degree in Design and Production of Radio Equipment; Professor of the Department of Electric Supply of UlSTU; an author of articles and monographs in the field of theoretical foundations of electrical engineering. e-mail: sak@ulstu.ruS.A. Kurganov

Formulas for the subcircuit element diagnostics in linear electrical circuits58_13.pdf

On the basis of the theorem on indirect compensation of subcircuits and a single experiment, formulas in the form of the ratio of circuit determinants for the diagnosis of subcircuits in electronic circuits are proposed. Formulas allow us to find unknown parameters of elements using measurements and calculations for the diagnosed subcircuit only, which reduces the amount of computational operations. Unknown parameters are obtained in the form of symbolic fractional-rational expressions containing known parameters and measured voltages and currents. The diagnostic circuit can contain arbitrary linear elements both bipolar and controlled voltage and current sources of all types, including ideal operational amplifiers- nullors. To obtain the desired parameters, it is possible to use known algorithms and programs of symbolic or numerical analysis of electrical circuits. An example of symbolic diagnostics of low-pass filter subcircuit elements is given.

Electric circuits, diagnostics, subcircuit, formulas for parameters, circuit determinants, nullors, circuit-algebraic formula.

2019_ 4

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Sergei Aleksandrovich Kurganov, Doctor of Sciences in Engineering; graduated from Ulyanovsk Polytechnic Institute with a degree in Design and Production of Radio Equipment; Professor of the Department of Electric Supply of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of articles and monographs in the field of theoretical foundations of electrical engineering. e-mail: sak@ulstu.ruS.A. Kurganov,

Ivan Alekseevich Prokofev, graduated from Ulyanovsk State Technical University with Bachelor’s degree in Electric Power and Electrical Engineering; Master Student of the Department of Electric Supply of UlSTU; an author of articles in the field of theoretical foundations of electrical engineering. e-mail: prokofev.ivan.2015@yandex.ruI.A. Prokofev

Formula for finding the sensitivity functions of linear electrical circuits in parts58_14.pdf

A formula for finding symbolic expressions of sensitivity of arbitrary linear electrical circuits in parts by dividing the circuit into subsystems is proposed. Electrical circuits can contain both bipolar elements and controlled sources (UIs) of voltage and current including ideal UIs – nullors. The scheme division is performed on the basis of an equivalent multidimensional generator (EMG) by the scheme-algebraic reduction method. The circuit sensitivity formula contains the sensitivity quotients of the EMG elements or their numerators, which are found using the difference circuit-algebraic sensitivity formula. The proposed formula excludes reducing multipliers and zero terms, and it requires to find the symbolic functions of relative sensitivity of the disclosure of a much smaller number of determinants of subcircuits-circuit minors than the known sensitivity formula based on bisection of determinants.

Electrical circuits, sensitivity, symbolic function, piecemeal analysis, circuit determinants, partial sensitivity, equivalent multidimensional generator, circuit minor.

2019_ 4

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Denis Aleksandrovich Evsevichev, Ulyanovsk Civil Aviation Institute n. a. Marshal of the Air Force B.P. Bugaev, Candidate of Science in Engineering; graduated from the Radioengineering Faculty of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Associate Professor of the Department of Air Traffic Control and Navigation of the Ulyanovsk Civil Aviation Institute n. a. Marshal of the Air Force B.P. Bugaev; an author of articles in the field of computer-aided design and optoelectronics. [e-mail: denistk_87@mail.ru]D. Evsevichev,

Mikhail Konstantinovich Samokhvalov, Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Doctor of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics, Professor; graduated from the Faculty of Physics of Saratov State University; Professor at the Department of Design and Technology of Electronic Devices of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of articles in the field of optoelectronics.[e-mail: sam@ulstu.ru]M. Samokhvalov

Automated Selection of Designs for Thin-Film Electroluminescent Displays for Avionics 56_13.pdf

The development of methods and means for testing the applicability of thin-film electroluminescent indicator devices as displays for displaying navigation and technical information in aircraft is carried out. Thin-film electroluminescent displays are used in equipment and systems that require high image quality and reliability as well as a long service life of the devices. The result of the performed work is the ExpAT program, which allows to carry out a computational experiment to test of the applicability of the TFEL indicator devices in aeronautical engineering. The algorithm of the program includes iterative calculations of the indicator parameters at user-defined intervals, comparing them with the specified ones and recording the results. As a result of the computational experiment, variants of structures of thin-film emitting structures that meet the operating conditions of indicators in avionics are shown.

Aircraft engineering, electroluminescence, indicator, simulation experiment.

2019_ 2

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Tatiana Ivanovna Davydova, Federal Research-and-Production Center Joint Stock Company ‘Research-and-Production Association ‘Mars’, Candidate of Science in Engineering; graduated from the Radioengineering Faculty of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Leading Engineer at FRPC JSC ‘RPA ‘Mars’; an author of articles and a monograph in the field of reliability calculations and operating of radio engineering facilities. [e-mail: tasha_dav@inbox.ru]T. Davydova,

Andrei Vladimirovich Kalashnikov, Federal Research-and-Production Center Joint Stock Company ‘Research-and-Production Association ‘Mars’, graduated from the Faculty of Design and Technology of Electronic Devices of UlSTU; a research engineer at FRPC JSC ‘RPA ‘Mars’; specializes in the field of development of printed circuit boards with electronic components for secondary power supply systems. [e-mail: mars@mv.ru]A. Kalashnikov

A Coefficient Method for Calculating the Reliability of Functional Part of Power Supply Pcb 56_14.pdf

The reliability of electronic equipment has been the focus of the attention for many decades. The actuality of that grows along with the miniaturization of electronic components and the density of attachment in electronic equipment. The process of reliability calculation becomes more complex and takes more time in view of the growth of type and amount of applied electronic components. Nonfailure operating probability, failure intensity, and mean time to failure are basic qualitative characteristics of the reliability. The dangerous failures of electronic components can have critical and catastrophic consequences in the functionality of electronic equipment. The article deals with the procedure of the reliability calculation using various coefficients. Different mathematical models can be used for the same task of the reliability calculation. In order to solve the tasks, various methods can be used. All these facts may cause different results.Authors represent an approach to the coefficient method allowing to carry out the reliability calculation with higher precision and fidelity. The coefficient method is usable for comparing different ways for reliability calculation.

Reliability, coefficient method, time to failures.

2019_ 2

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Viacheslav Andreevich Sergeev, Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Science in Engineering, Professor; graduated from the Faculty of Physics of Gorky State University; Director of the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Head of the Department of Radioengineering, Opto- and Nanoelectronics of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of monographs, papers in the field of the modeling and researching semiconductor devices and integrated circuits parameters and measure of its thermal parameters. [e-mail: sva@ulstu.ru]V. Sergeev,

Ruslan Gennadievich Tarasov, Research-and-Production Association ‘NPP ‘Zavod Iskra’ JSC, graduated from the Ulyanovsk High Military Engineering School of Communications; Director of Research-and-Production Association ‘NPP ‘Zavod Iskra’ JSC; Postgraduate Student at the Department of Radioengineering, Opto- and Nanoelectronics of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of papers in the field of development of analytical quality control methods and automated measurement tools of semiconductor devices. [e-mail: rgtarasov@mail.ru]R. Tarasov,

Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Kulikov, Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, graduated from the Faculty of Radioengineering of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Lead Engineer at the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Postgraduate Student at the Department of Radioengineering, Opto- and Nanoelectronics of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of papers in the field of development of semiconductor devices automated measurement tools. [e-mail: ufire@mv.ru]A. Kulikov

The Quality Diagnostics of Output Power Amplifiers of the Apaa Transceiver Modules By Temperature Fields 55_14.pdf

A structural diagram of Transmit/Receive modules (TRM) of Active Phased Array Antennas X-band is briefly reviewed and it is shown that the quality of TRM is largely determined by the build quality of the most critical node - submodules of output power amplifiers (OPA) with two parallel-connected monolithic integrated circuits (MIC) microwave amplifiers. The structure and the operation of the measuring stand for monitoring the main electrical and energy parameters of the OPA, as well as the temperature fields of printed circuit boards of the OPA submodules using an OptoTherm infrared (IR) microscope are given. Selective distributions of the OPA submodules by energy parameters showed that the quality of the OPA is determined to a large extent by the quality of the microwave paths and the build quality. When examining the temperature fields of printed circuit boards of OPA submodules using an IR microscope, which did not pass the output power control, when using OPA in nominal and more severely dissipated power modes, it was established that up to 75% of assembly defects and passive circuits of OPA submodules appear in local overheating of submodule elements. In particular, a strong (with a coefficient of ~ 0.8) negative correlation is observed between the output power level and the overheating temperature of the balanced resistor in the output power adder. A detailed analysis of the causes of local overheating of OPA elements showed that up to 40% of the detected defects can be eliminated by adjusting the installation. The remaining 60% of defects of the OPA submodules are probably determined by the quality of the elements themselves.

Apaa transceiver modules, submodules of output power amplifiers, measuring stand, output power, temperature fields, diagnostics, defects.

2019_ 1

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.



Viktor Vladimirovich Prikhodko, the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University, Candidate of Science in Physics and Mathematics; graduated from the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of the Ulyanovsk Branch of Lomonosov Moscow State University; Senior Staff Scientist at the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University; his research interests include solid state physics, optics, telecommunications. [e-mail: vvp@ulsu.ru]V. Prikhodko,

Sergei Gennadievich Novikov, the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University, Candidate of Science in Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of the Ulyanovsk Branch of Lomonosov Moscow State University; Head of the Solid State Electronics Laboratory at the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University; his research interests include microelectronics, negatronics, optoelectronics, semiconductor devices with positive feedback. [e-mail: novikovsg@ulsu.ru]S. Novikov,

Aleksandr Sergeevich Alekseev, the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University, Postgraduate Student of Ulyanovsk State University; graduated from the Faculty of High Technology Physics and Engineering of Ulyanovsk State University; Research Assistant at the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University; his research interests include semiconductor devices, optoelectronics and microelectronics. [e-mail: granik@ya.ru]A. Alekseev,

Aleksei Valentinovich Berintsev, the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University, Candidate of Science in Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Radioengineering of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Engineer of the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University; his research interests include optoelectronics, microelectronics, semiconductor devices; an author of articles and inventions in the field of measurement automation and optoelectronic devices research. [e-mail: berints@mail.ru]A. Berintsev,

Aleksei Sergeevich Kadochkin, the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University, Candidate of Science in Physics and Mathematics; graduated from the Faculty of Physics and Engineering of Ulyanovsk State University; Senior Staff Scientist of the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University; his research interests include optics, plasmonics. [e-mail: askadochkin@sv.ulsu.ru]A. Kadochkin,

Viacheslav Viktorovich Svetukhin, the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University, Doctor of Science in Physics and Mathematics; graduated from the Faculty of Physics and Engineering of the Ulyanovsk Branch of Lomonosov Moscow State University; Professor, Leading Staff Scientist of the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University; his research interests include defect formation in semiconductor devices, radiation physics and technology; an author of articles in the field of semiconductor physics and physical material science. [e-mail: slava@sv.uven.ru]V. Svetukhin,

Andrei Ilich Somov, the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University, Candidate of Science in Physics and Mathematics; graduated from the Faculty of Physics and Engineering of the Ulyanovsk Branch of Lomonosov Moscow State University; Senior Staff Scientist of the Solid- State Electronics Laboratory at the S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology at Ulyanovsk State University; his research interests include semiconductor devices, optoelectronics, probabilistic processes. [e-mail: andrey_ somov@mail.ru]A. Somov

A System of Monitoring the Individual Absorbed Doses of Ionizing Radiation Based on a Gafchromic EBT3 Radiochrome Film 54_12.pdf

A system for monitoring the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation containing a personal dosimeter of the absorbed dose and a reader (system of readers) is proposed. The sensor material of the dosimeter is a Gafchromic EBT3 photochromic film, sensitive to both X-ray and gamma radiation. An original detector design containing an LED, two photodetectors located in one plane, and an optical flux divider with a mirror coating is proposed. Above one of the photoreceivers, a sensory element is placed, the change in optical transparency of which carries information about the absorbed dose. To transmit data on the measured dose, the radio channel and RFID technology are used. As readers of the data on the accumulated dose, mobile, desktop and stationary RFID readers can be used, including those integrated into enterprise information systems. The sensor used in the personal dosimeter makes it possible to measure the absorbed dose continuously for a long period of time. In addition, the dosimeter does not contain a power source, and the energy necessary for operation comes at the moments of interaction of the personal dosimeter with the reader, which ensures a reduction in the mass-dimensions and the possibility of implementing the dosimeter in a compact form factor.The results of model calculations and experimental studies carried out to justify the possibility of constructing a detector based on the Gafchromic EBT3 radiochromic film are presented.

Gafchromic ebt3, rfid, monitoring system, personal dosimetry, dosimeter of absorbed dose, radiochromic films, gafchromic ebt3, radio frequency identification, rfid, x-ray radiation, gamma radiation, numerical modeling, optical spectroscopy.

2018_ 4

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics, Information systems.


Mikhail Konstantinovich Samokhvalov, Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Doctor of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics, Professor; graduated from the Faculty of Physics of Saratov State University; Professor at the Department of Design and Technology of Electronic Devices at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of articles and monographs in the field of optoelectronics. [e-mail: sam@ulstu.ru]M. Samokhvalov

Thermophysical Characteristics of Thin-film Electroluminescent Capacitors 54_13.pdf

Theoretical analysis and experimental studies of the processes of electric power dissipation and heating in thin-film electroluminescent capacitors in operating modes are carried out. The analysis of heat fluxes in a thin-film structure allowed to develop the thermal scheme of the electroluminescent capacitor. The calculation of numerical values of the thermal scheme elements taking into account features of properties of materials and designs of radiators is carried out. Studies have shown that the electrical power generated in the phosphor film in the form of heat is dissipated mainly through the glass substrate. It is established that the thermal resistance of a thin-film electroluminescent capacitor is 300-350 K/W and the thermal constant is 150-200 s. Heating of a thin-film structure does not exceed 10-15 K and cannot lead to degradation of the emitting indicator element.

Thin film electroluminescent capacitor, temperature resistance, phosphor, electroluminescence, indicator.

2018_ 4

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.


Vitalii Ivanovich Smirnov, Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Doctorof Sciencein Engineering, Professor; graduatedfrom Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod with the specialty in Physics; Professor of the Department of Design and Technology of Electronic Instrumentation at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of articles, monographs, inventions in the field of measurement instrument automation. [e-mail: smirnov-vi@mail.ru]V. Smirnov,

Viacheslav Andreevich Sergeev, Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Science in Engineering, Professor; graduated from the Faculty of Physics of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod; Director of the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Head of the Basic Department of Radioengineering, Opto- and Nanoelectronics of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of monographs, papers, and inventions in the field of the modeling and researching semiconductor devices and integrated circuits parameters and the measurements of its thermal characteristics. [e-mail: sva@ulstu.ru]V. Sergeev,

Andrei Anatolievich Gavrikov, Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Candidate of Science in Engineering; graduated from Ulyanovsk State Technical University with the specialty in Design and Technology of Electronic Instrumentation; Senior Staff Scientist at the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; an author of articles and inventions in the field of measurement of thermal and physical parameters of semiconductor devices. [e-mail: a.gavrikoff@gmail.com]A. Gavrikov

Apparatus for Measurement of Thermal Impedance of Solar Batteries 54_14.pdf

This paper describes apparatus for measuring the thermal impedance of solar batteries. A modulation method that uses the harmonic heating power modulation is a base of the apparatus operation. This method allows to determine the thermal resistance components corresponding to the structural elements of a solar battery. To solve the problem, the post processing method for thermal impedance dependence on modulation frequency was developed.Apparatus provides a measurement range of thermal resistance from 0.01 to 100 K/W, the measurement error is 5%, the range of heating currents is from 0.25 up to 4 A, the range of heating power modulation frequency is 0.01 up to 1000 Hz.Research of thermal physical processes in solar batteries performed by the apparatus shows that thermal resistance dependence on heating current is non-linear. This is explained by the non-uniform current distribution through the junction due to the presence of positive thermal feedback.

Thermal resistance, thermal impedance, modulation method, solar battery, current localization.

2018_ 4

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics, Information systems.


Mikhail Konstantinovich Samokhvalov, Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Doctor of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics, Professor; graduated from the Faculty of Physics of Saratov State University named after N.G. Chernyshevsky; Professor of the Department of Electronic Instrumentation Design and Technology at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of articles and monographs in the field of optoelectronics. [e-mail: sam@ulstu.ru]M. Samokhvalov

Modeling the Brightness Dynamics of Thin-film Electroluminescent Capacitors 53_12.pdf

The processes of excitation of luminescence of thin-film electroluminescent capacitors within the model of direct shock excitation of activator centers in the luminophore are analyzed. Mathematical modeling of the dynamics of the brightness of radiation sources is carried out on the basis of the solution of the nonlinear ordinary differential equation describing the kinetics of changes in the density of excited centers of luminescence in the phosphor film. A program for numerical solution of nonlinear equation of luminance dynamics by Runge-Kutt method using a computer is developed. It is shown that the duration of transient processes determined by the brightness waves reaches 8-10 periods of applied alternating voltage. In order to obtain high brightness levels of electroluminescent indicators, it is necessary to excite the indicator elements with suites of alternating voltage pulses, the duration of which must be at least the time of reaching the steady-state operation.

Thin film electroluminescent capacitor, brightness, phosphor, electroluminescence, indicator.

2018_ 3

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics, Mathematical modeling, Information systems.


Rudolf Aleksandrovich Brazhe, Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Doctor of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Head of the Department of Physics at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; graduated from the Faculty of Physics of Saratov State University named after N.G. Chernyshevsky; an author of numerous scientific papers, monographs, tutorials, and invention certificates; has research interests in the field of wave processes, meta- and nanomaterials, nanoelectronics, and control system elements [e-mail: brazhe@ulstu.ru]R. Brazhe,

Andrei Fedorovich Savin, RITG, LLC, graduated from the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Ulyanovsk State Teachers University named after I.N. Ulyanov; Lead Analyzer of RITG, LLC; an author of publications in the field of mathematical modeling of nanoscale radioengineering components. [e-mail: a_f_savin@mail.ru]A. Savin

Electric Characteristics of Sensing Elements of Resonance Nanosensors for Robotic Systems Based on Spiral Nanotubes 53_13.pdf

Sensing devices of nanosensors for robotic and biorobotic systems based on separate spiral nanotubes draw an attention of researchers both as from the point of view of opportunities of their design with the use of the temporary nanotechnologies as from the point of view of their high sensitivity to external influences. Owing to deformation of nanocoil as a result of external influence, its impedance changes, and a shift of a resonant frequency appears. It is shown that the resonant frequency of such nanosolenoids can reach tens petahertz, and its shift can make the tenth shares of petahertz as a result of nanocoil’s length change for 1 percent.

Spiral nanotubes, resonant nanosensors, impedance properties.

2018_ 3

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics, Mathematical modeling.


Rudolf Aleksandrovich Brazhe, Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Doctor of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Head of the Depart-ment of Physics at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; graduated from the Faculty of Physics of Saratov State University named after N.G. Chernyshevsky; an author of numerous scientific papers, monographs, tutorials, and invention certificates; has research interests in the field of wave processes, meta- and nanomaterials, nanoelectronics, and control system elements. [e-mail: brazhe@ulstu.ru]R. Brazhe

Mechanical Characteristics of Electromechanical Resonators Based on Spiral Nanotubes 53_14.pdf

In electromechanical resonators shaped as spiral nanotubes, two types of resonances such as an electrical resonance like in serial RLC circuit and the mechanical one like in a coil spring can exist. Both types of resonances can be used for designing the sensing devices of resonance nanosensors for robotic and biorobotic systems though their resonant frequencies strongly differ from each other. This paper deals with a comparison of electrical and mechanical characteristics of the electromechanical resonators based on coiled nanotubes. It is shown that the frequency of the displacement resonance in such mechanical oscillators can reach tens of gigahertz while the current resonance occurs at the frequencies reaching tens petahertz. The amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency characteristics of forced oscillations in the considered nanospirals are brought. It is shown that their mechanical figure of merit does not exceed several units and is comparable with the electrical one because of grate attenuation.

Spiral nanotubes, electromechanical resonator, resonance characteristics.

2018_ 3

Sections: Electrical engineering and electronics

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics, Mathematical modeling.


Vitalii Ivanovich Smirnov, Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Doctor of Engineering, Professor; graduated from Gorky State University with the specialty in Physics; Professor of the Department of Design and Technology of Electronic Instrumentation at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of articles, monographs, inventions in the field of measurement instrument automation. [e-mail: smirnov-vi@ulstu.ru]V. Smirnov,

Iurii Aleksandrovich Savostin, JSC “ICC Milandr”, graduated from the Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology with the specialty in Automation and Electronics; Head of Research Laboratory at JSC “ICC Milandr”; an author of publications in the field of measuring semiconductor integrated circuit parameters. [e-mail: savostin.u@ic-design.ru]I. Savostin,

Andrei Anatolievich Gavrikov, Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio-Engineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Candidate of Engineering; graduated from Ulyanovsk State Technical University with the specialty in Design and Technology of Electronic Instrumentation; Senior Staff Scientist at the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio-Engineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; an author of articles and inventions in the field of measuring thermal and physical parameters of semiconductor devices. [e-mail: a.gavrikoff@gmail.com]A. Gavrikov,

Anton Mikhailovich Shorin, Ulyanovsk State Technical University, from Ulyanovsk State Technical University with the specialty in Design and Technology of Electronic Instrumentation; Postgraduate Student at the Department of Design and Technology of Electronic Instrumentation, an author of publications in the field of measuring thermal and physical parameters of semiconductor devices. [e-mail: anshant@yandex.ru]A. Shorin

Methods and Means for Measuring the Thermal Resistance of Integrated Circuits 51_10.pdf

The article deals with methods and means for measuring the thermal resistance of integrated circuits. The standard measuring methods and a modulation method using heating power varying harmonically are compared. The operation principles of thermal resistance meter based on the modulation method, its software and functionality are described. The results of thermal resistance measurements obtained according to the Industry Standard OST 11 0944-96 (method of constant die temperature) and with the use of modulation method are represented. The results of both methods were demonstrated to go with each other within the standard method accuracy. It is indicated that the ability to measure not only the total resistance ”junction-to-case” but also individual thermal resistance components, e.g. the “junction-chip carrier” components, is a merit of the modulation method. This could be used when testing the quality during mounting the die into the case.

Thermal impedance, integrated circuit, modulation of heating power, thermal resistance components.

2018_ 1

Sections: Electronic and electrical engineering

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.


Viacheslav Andreevich Sergeev, Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio-Engineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, [e-mail: sva@ulstu.ru]V. Sergeev,

Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Kulikov, Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio-Engineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, graduated from the Faculty of Radioengineering of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Senior Engineer at the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio-Engineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Postgraduate Student at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of papers in the field of development of automated measurement tools for semiconductor devices. [e-mail: ufire@mv.ru]A. Kulikov,

Ruslan Gennadevich Tarasov, JSC “NPP “Zavod Iskra”, graduated from Ulyanovsk High Military Engineering School; Director of JSC “NPP “Zavod Iskra”, Postgraduate Student at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of papers in the field of development of automated measurement tools for semiconductor devices. [e-mail: rgtarasov@mail.ru]R. Tarasov,

Iaroslav Gennadevich Tetenkin, Ulyanovsk Instrument Manufacturing Design Bureau, Candidate of Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Radioengineering of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Senior Engineer of Ulyanovsk Instrument Manufacturing Design Bureau; an author of scientific publications and inventions in the field of computer-aided measurement and parameter analysis of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits and measuring of their thermal characteristics. [e-mail: a732041@yandex.ru]I. Tetenkin

Installation for Measurement of Current Pinching Voltage in Structures of Power Rf and Microwave Bipolar Transistors 000_13.pdf

The short review of the known ways and tools of current pinching voltage in structures of power RF and microwave bipolar and heterobipolar transistors (PBT) in the active mode of inclusion is submitted. The article shows that the ways based on measurement of the steepness of dependence U EB ) of voltage on emitter junction from collector voltage are ( U CB effective for the devices working in the quasicontinuous mode. Installation for measuring voltage of a current pinching in PBT which principle of work is based on measurement of amplitude of a variable component Ũ EB of voltage on emitter junction of PBT at transmission of direct emitter current via the transistor and giving on the collector of the sum of linearly increasing small alternating voltage is described. The current pinching in transistor structure is occurred in sharp increase of the steepness of dependence Ũ E B ). The algorithm of indirect determination of tension of current localization in ( U CB transistor structure on the measured values on the initial site of the specified dependences without hit of the controlled PBT in the mode of "a hot spot" is described.

Power rf and microwave bipolar transistors, electrothermal instability, current pinching voltage, installation, measurement.

2017_ 3

Sections: Electronic and electrical engineering

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics, Mathematical modeling.


Aleksei Arkadevich Smagin, Ulyanovsk State University, Doctor of Engineering, Professor; graduated from the Faculty of Radioengineering of Ulyanovsk Polytechnic Institute; Head of the Department of Telecommunications Technologies and Networks at Ulyanovsk State University; an author of articles, inventions, and monographs in the field of different-purpose information system development. [e-mail: smaginaa1@mail.ru]A. Smagin,

Andrei Evgenevich Klochkov, Ulyanovsk State University, graduated from the Faculty of Mathematics and Information Technologies of Ulyanovsk State University, Senior Lecturer at the Department of Information Security and Management Theory of Ulyanovsk State University; experienced in of work in the field of information security from leakages through technical communication channels. [e-mail: ak@ulsu.ru]A. Klochkov,

Aleksandr Iurevich Grigorev, Ulyanovsk State University, graduated from the Faculty of Mathematics and Information Technologies of Ulyanovsk State University; Postgraduate Student at the Department of Telecommunication Technologies and Networks of Ulyanovsk State University; Software Engineer at Federal Research-and-Production Center Joint Stock Company ‘Research-and-Production Association 'Mars'; an author of articles in the field of statistical testing of random sequences. [e-mail: als73@mail.ru]A. Grigorev

Researching the Ability of Using Mobile Device Sensors for Generation of Random Sequencies 000_14.pdf

The article considers researches of ability of using digital position monitoring encoders for generation of bit random sequences used in cryptography. In order to create hardware generator, gyroscope and accelerometer sensors installed on three mobile devices are used. The source of randomness is the regular change of sensor data due to movement in space, minor fluctuations and vibrations of a device during operation. The article suggests the methods of position sensor data processing for creating bit sequences. The stages of testing and the criterion for confirmation of randomness are discussed. The NIST STS software package contains different statistical tests that are used for randomness testing of sequences. The article includes the results of the experiments of testing the sensors (accelerometer and gyroscope) of three mobile devices.

Nist sts, accelerometer, gyroscope, random numbers generator, statistical tests, nist sts.

2017_ 3

Sections: Electronic and electrical engineering

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.


Aleksei Arkadevich Smagin, Ulyanovsk State University, Doctor of Engineering, Professor; graduated from the Faculty of Radioengineering of Ulyanovsk Polytechnic Institute; Head of the Department of Telecommunications Technologies and Networks at Ulyanovsk State University; an author of articles, inventions, and monographs in the field of different-purpose information system development. [e-mail: smaginaa1@mail.ru]A. Smagin,

Andrei Evgenevich Klochkov, Ulyanovsk State University, graduated from the Faculty of Mathematics and Information Technologies of Ulyanovsk State University, Senior Lecturer at the Department of Information Security and Management Theory of Ulyanovsk State University; experienced in of work in the field of information security from leakages through technical communication channels. [e-mail: ak@ulsu.ru]A. Klochkov,

Aleksandr Iurevich Grigorev, Ulyanovsk State University, graduated from the Faculty of Mathematics and Information Technologies of Ulyanovsk State University; Postgraduate Student at the Department of Telecommunication Technologies and Networks of Ulyanovsk State University; Software Engineer at Federal Research-and-Production Center Joint Stock Company ‘Research-and-Production Association 'Mars'; an author of articles in the field of statistical testing of random sequences. [e-mail: als73@mail.ru]A. Grigorev

Researching the Ability of Using Mobile Device Sensors for Generation of Random Sequencies 000_14.pdf

The article considers researches of ability of using digital position monitoring encoders for generation of bit random sequences used in cryptography. In order to create hardware generator, gyroscope and accelerometer sensors installed on three mobile devices are used. The source of randomness is the regular change of sensor data due to movement in space, minor fluctuations and vibrations of a device during operation. The article suggests the methods of position sensor data processing for creating bit sequences. The stages of testing and the criterion for confirmation of randomness are discussed. The NIST STS software package contains different statistical tests that are used for randomness testing of sequences. The article includes the results of the experiments of testing the sensors (accelerometer and gyroscope) of three mobile devices.

Nist sts, accelerometer, gyroscope, random numbers generator, statistical tests, nist sts.

2017_ 3

Sections: Electronic and electrical engineering

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics, Mathematical modeling.


Viacheslav Andreevich Sergeev, Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Engineering, Associate Professor; graduated from the Faculty of Physics of Gorky State Technical University; Director of the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Head of the Basic Department of Radioengineering, Opto- and Nanolectronics of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of monographs, papers, and inventions in the field of modelling and researching semiconductor devices and integrated circuits parameters and measure of its thermal parameters. [e-mail: sva@ulstu.ru]V. Sergeev,

Sergei Viacheslavovich Vasin, Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Candidate of Physics and Mathematics; graduated from Physics and Technology Faculty оf the Ulyanovsk Branch of Moscow State University; Senior Scientist at the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio-Engineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Associate Professor at the Department of Radioengineering, Opto- and Nanolectronics of Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of papers in the field of fibre optics, methods of inspection of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. [e-mail: s.vasin@outlook.com]S. Vasin,

Oleg Aleksandrovich Radaev, Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, graduated from the Faculty of Radioengineering of the Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Junior Scientist at the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Postgraduate Student at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of papers in the field of development of automated measurement tools for semiconductor devices parameters. [e-mail: oleg.radaev.91@mail.ru]O. Radaev,

Ilia Vladimirovich Frolov, Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Candidate of Engineering; graduated from the Faculty of Radioengineering of the Ulyanovsk State Technical University; Senior Scientist at the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; an author of papers in the field of methods and means of nondestructive inspection for semiconductor devices. [e-mail: ilya-frolov88@mail.ru]I. Frolov

Automated Installation of Diagnostics of Quality of Light-emitting Heterostructures By the Method of Dynamic Photoelectric Response 000_12.pdf

The block diagram and the principle of action of the automated installation for diagnostics of lateral uniformity of light-emitting heterostructures with quantum walls by measurement and the analysis of a photoelectric response (photovoltage or a photocurrent) are considered at their local dynamic photoexcitation the narrow-band optical radiation of a visible band. The possibility of the choice of harmonic or pulse modulation of counting rate of a flare with adjustment of parameters of modulation is provided in the installation. The electronic-mechanical and optical systems of positioning operated by the microcontroller provide a flare of the heterostructures with quantum walls local area with a minimum diameter of spot of 30 microns and accuracy of positioning ±10 microns. The data acquisition module LA-N1USB transforms a photoresponse signal to a digital signal and transfers it to the computer for processing. Results of approbation of a method and installation on InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes in the static mode confirm existence of inhomogeneities in distribution of a photoelectric on a light-emitting diode crystal surface. The developed method and installation can be used for diagnostics of quality of both light-emitting heterostructures with quantum walls, and other classes of semiconductor devices with p-n transitions: transistors, solar elements, photo diodes, etc.

Light-emitting heterostructures, quality diagnostics, automated installation, lateral heterogeneity, local photoexcitement, photoelectric response.

2017_ 2

Sections: Electronic and electrical engineering

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.


Vitalii Ivanovich Smirnov, Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Doctor of Engineering, Professor; graduated from Gorky State University with the specialty of Physics; Professor of the Department of Design and Technology of Electronic Instrumentation at Ulyanovsk State Technical University; an author of articles, monographs, inventions in the field of automation instrument measurement. [e-mail: smirnov-vi@mail.ru]V. Smirnov,

Andrei Anatolievich Gavrikov, Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Candidate of Engineering; graduated from Ulyanovsk State Technical University with the specialty of Design and Technology of Electronic Instrumentation, Senior Staff Scientist at the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; an author of articles and inventions in the field of measurement of thermal and physical parameters of semiconductor devices. [e-mail: a.gavrikoff@gmail.com]A. Gavrikov,

Anton Mikhailovich Shorin, Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Postgraduate Student at the Department of Design and Technology of Electronic Instrumentation; graduated from Ulyanovsk State Technical University with the specialty of Design and Technology of Electronic Instrumentation; an engineer at the Ulyanovsk Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences; an author of articles in the field of measurement of thermal and physical parameters of semiconductor devices. [e-mail: anshant@yandex.ru]A. Shorin

The Method for Measuring Thermal Resistance Components of Semiconductor Devices and Its Practical Implementation 000_13.pdf

The modulation method for measuring components of thermal impedance of semiconductor devices is considered. The method implies device stimulation with heating power varying harmonically. In interpulse time, the heat-sensitive parameter, forward voltage drop on the p-n junction, at low measuring current is determined. First harmonic of the p-n junction temperature is determined by the discrete Fourier transform, which allows to determine thermal impedance module and a phase at modulation frequency of heating power. Numerical simulation shows that the components of thermal resistance of a device according to the Foster network can be determined at the modulation frequencies corresponding to the minima of the first derivative of the frequency dependence of the real part of thermal impedance. A distinctive feature of the method is the fact that the temperature trend of the case does not significantly affect the result of the measurement. The main characteristics of the device realizing the described method are given.

Thermal impedance, semiconductor devices, modulation of heating power, thermal resistance components.

2017_ 2

Sections: Electronic and electrical engineering

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics.


Sergei Feofentovich Tiurin, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Honored Inventor of the Russian Federation; Doctor of Engineering; Professor at the Department of Automation and Telemechanics of Perm National Research Polytechnic University; an author of articles, monographs, inventions in the field of fault-tolerant elements and devices of computers and control systems. [e-mail: tyurinsergfeo@yandex.ru]S. Tiurin,

Vladimir Georgievich Zarubskii, Perm Institute of the Federal Penal Service of the Russian Federation, Candidate of Engineering, Associate Professor of regime and security in Penal System Department of Perm Institute of the Federal Penal Service of the Russian Federation; an author of articles, monographs, inventions in the field of fault-tolerant elements and devices of computers and control systems. [e-mail: volen3030@rambler.ru]V. Zarubskii

Functional Complete Tolerant Logical Components Parryingtwo and Three Failure in Each Transistor Structure 000_14.pdf

Reliability of control systems of various technological processes depends on the reliability of the circuitry constituting the basis for its structure. The article deals with functional complete tolerant look up table - FCTLUT included in the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) for high-reliability applications, with the ability to save original function in case of failure of two or three transistors in each transistor structure. The analysis of the complexity of the proposed FCTLUT2 with nine-fold redundancy parrying the failure of two transistors in each transistor structure and FCTLUT3 with sixteen-fold redundancy parrying the refusal of three transistors in each transistor structure compared with FCTLUT1 parrying the failure of one transistor in each transistor structure. FCTLUT1, 2, and 3 are compared on the probability of failure-free operation with triplication structures of logic elements of the FPGA.

Lut, logical element, fpga, lut, transistor, functional complete tolerant look up table - fctlut, redundancy, probability of no-failure operation, triplication, quadrupling, nine-fold redundancy, sixteen-fold redundancy.

2017_ 2

Sections: Electronic and electrical engineering

Subjects: Electrical engineering and electronics, Mathematical modeling.


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